- MEC13.3 (See other available formats)
- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- PECAM-1, EndoCAM
- Rat IgG2a, κ
- Ave. Rating
- Submit a Review
- Product Citations
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CD31 is a 130-140 kD glycoprotein, also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1), EndoCAM, and gpIIa. It is a member of the Ig superfamily, expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and T and B cell subsets, and is critical for cell-to-cell interactions. The primary ligands for CD31 have been reported to be CD38 and the vitronectin receptor (αv β3 integrin, CD51/CD61). Other reported functions of CD31 are neutrophil emigration to sites of inflammation, and angiogenesis.Product Details
- Verified Reactivity
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- Polyoma middle T transformed EC line tEnd.1
- Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide.
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and conjugated with Alexa Fluor® 594 under optimal conditions.
- 0.5 mg/ml
- Storage & Handling
- The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
FC, IHC-F - Quality tested
3D IHC - Verified
SB - Reported in the literature, not verified in house
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by immunohistochemical staining on frozen tissue sections. For immunohistochemistry, a concentration range of 2.0 - 5.0 μg/ml is suggested. For flow cytometric staining, the suggested use of this reagent is ≤ 0.25 µg per million cells in 100 µl volume. For 3D immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed tissues, a concentration of 5.0 µg/mL is suggested. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance for each application.
* Alexa Fluor® 594 has an excitation maximum of 590 nm, and a maximum emission of 617 nm.
Alexa Fluor® and Pacific Blue™ are trademarks of Life Technologies Corporation.
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- Application Notes
Anti-mouse CD31 clones 390 and MEC13.3 bind to their respective non-overlapping epitopes in IgD2 of CD31.8 Additional reported applications (in the relevant formats) include: immunoprecipitation1, in vitro and in vivo blocking of CD31-mediated cell-cell interactions1-4, immunohistochemical staining1,5,6 of acetone-fixed frozen sections and zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, and spatial biology (IBEX)12,13.
Special Note: The antibody works well on acetone-fixed frozen sections as well as Zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. It sometime works on formalin-fixed and paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections but inconsistent results have been reported. This antibody is not recommended for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections or for Western blot analysis. The Ultra-LEAF™ Purified antibody (Endotoxin < 0.01 EU/µg, Azide-Free, 0.2 µm filtered) is recommended for functional assays (Cat. No. 102529 and 102530).
- Additional Product Notes
Iterative Bleaching Extended multi-pleXity (IBEX) is a fluorescent imaging technique capable of highly-multiplexed spatial analysis. The method relies on cyclical bleaching of panels of fluorescent antibodies in order to image and analyze many markers over multiple cycles of staining, imaging, and, bleaching. It is a community-developed open-access method developed by the Center for Advanced Tissue Imaging (CAT-I) in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH).
(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
- Vecchi A, et al. 1994. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 63:247. (IP, IHC, Block)
- Christofidou-Solomidou M, et al. 1997. J. Immunol. 158:4872. (Block)
- DeLisser HM, et al. 1997. Am. J. Pathol. 151:671. (Block)
- Rosenblum WI, et al. 1994. Am. J. Pathol. 145:33. (Block)
- Baldwin HS, et al. 1994. Development 120:2539. (IHC)
- Voswinckel R, et al. 2003. Circ. Res. 93:372. (IHC)
- Leung VW, et al. 2009. Am J. Pathol. 175:1757. PubMed
- Chacko AM, et al. 2012. PLoS One 7:e34958.
- Giacomini C, et al. 2014. Exp Eye Res. 18:1. PubMed
- Morita R, et al. 2015. PNAS. 112:160. PubMed
- Ito A, et al. 2015. Brain Res. 1594:310. PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2020. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 117:33455-65. (SB) PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2022. Nat Protoc. 17:378-401. (SB) PubMed
- Product Citations
AB_2563319 (BioLegend Cat. No. 102520)
- Ig superfamily, 130-140 kD
Endothelial cells, platelets, granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B cell subsets
- CD38, αV/β3 integrin
- Cell Type
- B cells, Dendritic cells, Endothelial cells, Granulocytes, Macrophages, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Platelets, T cells
- Biology Area
- Angiogenesis, Cell Adhesion, Cell Biology, Immunology, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience
- Molecular Family
- Adhesion Molecules, CD Molecules
- Antigen References
1. Barclay AN, et al. 1997. The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook Academic Press.
2. DeLisser HM, et al. 1994. Immunol. Today 15:490.
3. Newman PJ, et al. 1990. Science 247:1219.
- Gene ID
- 18613 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CD31 on UniProt.org
- If an antibody clone has been previously successfully used in IBEX in one fluorescent format, will other antibody formats work as well?
It’s likely that other fluorophore conjugates to the same antibody clone will also be compatible with IBEX using the same sample fixation procedure. Ultimately a directly conjugated antibody’s utility in fluorescent imaging and IBEX may be specific to the sample and microscope being used in the experiment. Some antibody clone conjugates may perform better than others due to performance differences in non-specific binding, fluorophore brightness, and other biochemical properties unique to that conjugate.
- Will antibodies my lab is already using for fluorescent or chromogenic IHC work in IBEX?
Fundamentally, IBEX as a technique that works much in the same way as single antibody panels or single marker IF/IHC. If you’re already successfully using an antibody clone on a sample of interest, it is likely that clone will have utility in IBEX. It is expected some optimization and testing of different antibody fluorophore conjugates will be required to find a suitable format; however, legacy microscopy techniques like chromogenic IHC on fixed or frozen tissue is an excellent place to start looking for useful antibodies.
- Are other fluorophores compatible with IBEX?
Over 18 fluorescent formats have been screened for use in IBEX, however, it is likely that other fluorophores are able to be rapidly bleached in IBEX. If a fluorophore format is already suitable for your imaging platform it can be tested for compatibility in IBEX.
- The same antibody works in one tissue type but not another. What is happening?
Differences in tissue properties may impact both the ability of an antibody to bind its target specifically and impact the ability of a specific fluorophore conjugate to overcome the background fluorescent signal in a given tissue. Secondary stains, as well as testing multiple fluorescent conjugates of the same clone, may help to troubleshoot challenging targets or tissues. Using a reference control tissue may also give confidence in the specificity of your staining.
- How can I be sure the staining I’m seeing in my tissue is real?
In general, best practices for validating an antibody in traditional chromogenic or fluorescent IHC are applicable to IBEX. Please reference the Nature Methods review on antibody based multiplexed imaging for resources on validating antibodies for IBEX.
|APC anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|Biotin anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|FITC anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|PE anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|Purified anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC,IP,Block,IHC-F|
|Alexa Fluor® 488 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|Alexa Fluor® 647 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC,3D IHC,SB|
|Alexa Fluor® 594 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC,IHC-F,3D IHC,SB|
|PerCP/Cyanine5.5 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|PE/Cyanine7 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|PE/Dazzle™ 594 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|APC/Fire™ 750 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|Ultra-LEAF™ Purified anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC,IP,Block,IHC-F|
|APC/Cyanine7 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||FC|
|Spark YG™ 570 anti-mouse CD31||MEC13.3||IHC-F|
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Compare Data Across All Formats
This data display is provided for general comparisons between formats.
Your actual data may vary due to variations in samples, target cells, instruments and their settings, staining conditions, and other factors.
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APC anti-mouse CD31
Biotin anti-mouse CD31
FITC anti-mouse CD31
PE anti-mouse CD31
Purified anti-mouse CD31
Alexa Fluor® 488 anti-mouse CD31
Alexa Fluor® 647 anti-mouse CD31
Alexa Fluor® 594 anti-mouse CD31
PerCP/Cyanine5.5 anti-mouse CD31
PE/Cyanine7 anti-mouse CD31
PE/Dazzle™ 594 anti-mouse CD31
APC/Fire™ 750 anti-mouse CD31
Ultra-LEAF™ Purified anti-mouse CD31
APC/Cyanine7 anti-mouse CD31
Spark YG™ 570 anti-mouse CD31