- Other Names
- C-C motif chemokine 12, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 5, MCP-1-related chemokine, Small-inducible cytokine A12
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Mouse CCL12 belongs to the CC chemokine family and is most closely related to human CCL2 (MCP-1) in structure (66% amino acid identity). CCL12 binds to cell surface receptor CCR2, a human CCL2 primary receptor, and can induce migration and Ca2+ flux. CCL12 is a potent chemoattractant for peripheral blood monocytes but only has weak activity on eosinophils at high doses. CCL12 is produced by macrophages during early allergic reactions and infections. During murine MCV infection, bone marrow F4/80 (+) cells can produce high levels of CCL12. The expression of CCL12 can also be upregulated by bacterial infections including pneumococcal meningitis and polymicrobial septic peritonitis. LPS can induce the expression of CCL12 in liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in vivo. CCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis by recruiting fibrocytes to the injury site and enhancing fibrotic responses. Also, CCL12 is implicated in liver and kidney fibrosis. It has also been shown that hypoxia inducible factor 1 is involved in hypoxia-induced upregulation of CCL12 in astrocytes. In addition, CCL12 is involved in joint and growth plate development.Product Details
- Mouse CCL12, amino acids Gly23-Gly104 (Accession#: Q62401.1) was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 82 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 10 kD. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 13 kD and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 15 kD by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Gly.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Bioactivity was measured by its ability to chemoattract THP-1 cells in a dose dependent manner. ED50 = 1 - 5 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- CC Chemokine
- Mainly chemoattracts monocytes to the site of inflammation; induced by IFN-α/β, LPS, and hypoxia
- Monocytes, fibrocytes
- Cell Type
- Dendritic cells, Tregs
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Innate Immunity
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Sarafi MN, et al. 1997. J. Exp. Med. 185:99.
2. Moore BB, et al. 2006. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 35:175.
3. Longobardi L, et al. 2012. Dev. Cell 23:71.
4. Klein M, et al. 2006. Microbes Infect. 8:974.
5. Kopydlowski KM, et al. 1999. J. Immunol. 163:1537.
6. Scholten D, et al. 2011 Am. J. Pathol. 179:189.
- Gene ID
- 20293 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CCL12 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.