- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, GIF, GLIF, MMIF
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- Product Citations
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MIF was discovered in the 1960’s as a T-lymphocyte product that inhibits the random migration of macrophages during delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. This cytokine is a single, non-glycosylated, 115 amino acid polypeptide that has a β-α-β motif. It is known that MIF induces inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide and superoxide anions, and regulates macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation. The immunoregulatory activities of MIF are based upon transcriptional regulation of inflammatory gene products, modulation of cell proliferation and cell cycle inhibition of p53-mediated apoptosis, and a number of metabolic effects. MIF also demonstrates broad regulatory properties and is considered to be a critical mediator of multiple disorders, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, sepsis, asthma, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, studies have highlighted the role of MIF in tumorigenesis. Human cancer tissues, including skin, brain, breast, colon, prostate, and lung-derived tumors, overexpress MIF: MIF levels correlated with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Therefore, MIF is considered a potential therapeutic target for treating inflammatory diseases and neoplasia. In addition to its physiologic and pathophysiologic activities, MIF is known to act as a tautomerase and has a catalytically active N-terminal proline that is invariant in structurally homologous bacterial isomerases. Although the relationship between the catalytic activity and biological function of MIF is not yet fully understood, targeting MIF tautomerase activity using small-molecule inhibitors has emerged as an attractive strategy for inhibiting MIF proinflammatory activity and attenuating its biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Human and mouse MIF share a 90% homology.Product Details
- Mouse MIF (amino acids Pro2-Ala115, Accession# NP_034928.1), was expressed in E. coli with an additional N-terminal Met.
- Molecular Mass
- The 115 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 12.5 kD. The protein migrates above 14 kD by SDS-PAGE in DTT-reducing conditions and above 12.5 kD in non-reducing conditions. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE
- Lyophilized in sterile-filtered PBS, pH 7.2, containing 1% BSA, 0.09% sodium azide, and protease inhibitors.
- Lot-specific (please contact technical support for mass/vial, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Upon receipt, store unopened vials between 2°C and 8°C immediately and use within 12 months from date of receipt. Prior to use, reconstitute the lyophilized powder with 0.2 ml of PBS containing a carrier protein (e.g., 1% BSA, protease free), pH 7.4. Re-cap vial, vortex. Allow the reconstituted standard to sit at room temperature for 15 minutes, vortex again to mix completely. The reconstituted standard stock solution can be aliquoted into polypropylene vials and stored at -70°C for up to one month. Do not re-use diluted standards. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles.
ELISA - Quality tested
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this protein is quality control tested by ELISA. For use as an ELISA standard, a standard curve comprised of doubling dilutions from 10 ng/mL to 0.156 ng/mL is suggested. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance.
- Application Notes
This MIF protein is useful as a standard for a mouse MIF sandwich ELISA, using unlabeled M3907B02 antibody as capture and biotinylated Poly5240 antibody as detection.
Macrophages, eosinophils, T cells, pituitary gland.
- MIF stimulates IL-1, IL-8, and MMP expression on fibroblasts. It also stimulates NO and TNF-α production on macrophages. MIF regulates the migration of macrophages. The secretion of MIF is regulated by steroids.
- Macrophages, fibroblasts
- Biology Area
- Angiogenesis, Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Biology, Cell Cycle/DNA Replication, Immunology, Innate Immunity, Signal Transduction
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. David JR. 1966. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 56:72.
2. Hare AA, et al. 2010. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20:5811.
3. Calandra T, et al. 2003. J. Infect. Dis. 187:s385.
4. Senter PD, et al. 2002. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99:144.
5. Calandra T, et al. 1995. Nature. 377:68.
6. Ouertatani-Sakouhi H, et al. 2010. Biol. Chem. 285:26581.
- Gene ID
- 17319 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about MIF on UniProt.org