- Tau 5 (See other available formats)
- Other Names
- Microtubule-associated protein tau, PHF-tau, paired helical filament-tau, neurofibrillary tangle, microtubule-associated protein tau, isoform 4, G protein beta1/gamma2 subunit-interacting factor 1, DDPAC, FTDP-17, MAPTL, MSTD, MTBT1, MTBT2, PPND
- Mouse IgG1
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- Product Citations
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Tau proteins are microtubule-associated protein (MAPs) which are abundant in neurons of the central nervous system, but are also expressed at very low levels in CNS astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and elsewhere. One of tau's main functions is to modulate the stability of axonal microtubules. Tau is active primarily in the distal portions of axons providing microtubule stabilization as well as flexibility. Pathologies and dementias of the nervous system such as Alzheimer's disease feature tau proteins that have become defective and no longer stabilize microtubules properly. As a result, tau forms aggregates with specific structural properties referred to as Paired Helical Filaments (PHFs) that are a characteristic of many different types of dementias, known as tauopathies.
Tau has two primary ways of controlling microtubule stability: isoforms and phosphorylation. Six tau isoforms exist in human brain tissue, and they are distinguished by the number of binding domains. Three isoforms have three binding domains and the remaining three have four binding domains. The binding domains are located in the carboxy-terminus of the protein and are positively-charged (for binding to the negatively-charged microtubule). Tau isoforms with four binding domains are better at stabilizing microtubules than those with three binding domains.
Thus, in the human brain, the tau proteins constitute a family of six isoforms with the range from 352-441 amino acids. They also differ in either zero, one or two inserts of 29 amino acids at the N-terminal part (exon 2 and 3), and three or four repeat-binding regions at the C-terminus. So, the longest isoform in the CNS has four repeats (R1, R2, R3 and R4) and two inserts (441 amino acids total), while the shortest isoform has three repeats (R1, R3 and R4) and no insert (352 amino acids total). Tau is also a phosphoprotein with 79 potential Serine (Ser) and Threonine (Thr) phosphorylation sites on the longest tau isoform. Phosphorylation has been reported on approximately 30 of these sites in normal tau proteins. Mechanisms that drive tau lesion formation in the highly prevalent sporadic form of AD are not fully understood, but appear to involve abnormal post-translational modifications (PTMs) that influence tau function, stability, and aggregation propensity.
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- This antibody is provided in 50% glycerol in aqueous buffered solutions with preservatives.
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography and conjugated with HRP under optimal conditions.
- 0.5 mg/ml
- Storage & Handling
- Upon receipt, the antibody solution should be stored undiluted at -20°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light.
WB - Quality tested
IHC-P - Validated
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by Western blotting. For Western blotting, the suggested use of this reagent is 0.01 - 0.1 µg per ml. For immunohistochemistry, a concentration range of 0.5 - 2.5 µg/ml is suggested. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance for each application.
- Application Notes
This antibody is specific for an epitope that lies between amino acids 210-230 of human Tau.
- Application References
- Lasagna-Reeves CA, et al. 2012. FASEB J. 26:1946. (WB, IHC-P) Pubmed
- Horowitz PM, et al. 2004. J Neurosci. 24:7895. (WB)
- Unmodified Tau isoforms have an apparent molecular weight ranging from 33-79 kD. Additional high and low molecular weight Tau species have been observed in brain tissues.
Tissue distribution: Central nervous system, peripheral ganglia and nerves, kidney, skeletal, and heart muscle.
Cellular distribution: Cytoskeleton, nucleus, plasma membrane, and cytosol.
- Tau promotes microtubule assembly and stability. The short tau isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization.
- Tau interacts with: Sequestosome-1, Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase FKBP4, Casein kinase I isoform delta, Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk1, Laforin, and alpha-synuclein.
- Cell Type
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Cell Proliferation and Viability, Neurodegeneration, Neuroscience, Protein Misfolding and Aggregation, Synaptic Biology
- Molecular Family
- Gene ID
- 4137 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Tau 210-230 on UniProt.org
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