The T cell-mediated immune response is a powerful machinery that leads to a rapid expansion, differentiation, and effector functions by T lymphocytes. T cell receptors like cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) serve as negative regulators, that, in concert with positive regulators, help ensure a controlled T cell-mediated immune response. However, tumor cells can also express high levels of immune checkpoint proteins, essentially exploiting T cell suppressive effects and evading the immune response for tumor survival. Research looks to unblock this suppression or activate a productive immune response.
We offer an expanding selection of bioactive recombinant immune checkpoint proteins, from leading targets like PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 to emerging ones such as TIGIT and LAG-3. BSA or other equivalent carrier proteins are typically added to improve protein stability and shelf life. However, addition of carrier proteins may produce nonrelated or undesired effects on experiments. Our recombinant immune checkpoint proteins are formulated carrier-free for use in applications where carriers would interfere with the experiment.