Calcium signaling plays a fundamental role in normal brain physiology, and is essential for many processes including synaptic activity, cell-cell communications, activity-dependent synaptic remodeling, and memory formation. Activation of synaptic receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDAR) result in the influx of calcium, activating signaling pathways that regulate various cellular functions. Calcium homeostasis must be tightly regulated due to its involvement in a multitude of pre- and post-synaptic processes. Increased excitatory stimulation and sustained calcium overload can lead to the dysregulation of cytosolic calcium homeostasis, and is detrimental for cellular health. Perturbations in cytosolic calcium levels have been observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In AD, deregulation of calcium levels has been linked to excitotoxicity mediated by Aβ-induced increase in NMDAR activity. In ALS, motor neurons become vulnerable to AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitotoxicity in part due to the absence of the GluA2 subunit rendering AMPA receptors permeable to calcium.
To complement our Presynaptic Vesicle and Postsynaptic Antibody Sampler kits, we offer sampler kits for AMPA and NMDA receptors. The GluA1/2 Receptor Antibody Sampler Kit allows detection of AMPAR subunits GluA1 and GluA2, and proteins involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor content: PICK1 and SynDYG1. PSD95 was included as a control for postsynapse identification.