- Other Names
- Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b2), CED, DPD1, TGFbeta, TGFB1
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- Product Citations
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TGF-β1 is synthesized in cells as a 390-amino acid. Furin cleaves the protein at residue 278, yielding an N-terminal cleavage product which corresponds to the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and the 25-kD C-terminal portion of the precursor constitutes the mature TGF-β1. TGF-β activators can release TGF-β from LAP. These activators include proteases that degrade LAP, thrombospondin-1, reactive oxygen species, and integrins avb6 and avb8. Mouse TGF-β converts naïve T cells into regulatory T (Treg) cells that prevent autoimmunity. Although human TGF-β1 is widely used for inducing FOXP3+ in vitro, it might not be an essential factor for human Treg differentiation. Th17 murine can be induced from naïve CD4+ T cells by the combination of TGF-β1 and IL-6 or IL-21. Nevertheless, the regulation of human Th17 differentiation is distinct. TGF-β1 seems to have dual effects on human Th17 differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. While TGF-β1 is required for the expression of RORγt, in human naive CD4+ T cells from cord blood, TGF-β1 can inhibit the function of RORγt at high doses. By using serum-free medium, it has been clarified that the optimum conditions for human Th17 differentiation areTGF-β1, IL-1β, and IL-2 in combination with IL-6, IL-21 or IL-23.Product Details
- Human TGF-β1, amino acids Ala279-Ser390 (Accession # NM_000660) was expressed in CHO cells. Mature TGF-β1 was purified from the conditioned media.
- Molecular Mass
- Recombinant human TGF-β1 exists as a disulfide linked homodimer, consisting of two 112 amino acid monomers, each with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 12.8 kDa. The non-reduced protein migrates as a homodimer, at approximately 26kDa by SDS-PAGE. The DTT-reduced protein migrates as a monomer, at approximately 13kDa by SDS-PAGE.
- Purity is >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 30% acetonitrile, 0.1% TFA (trifluoroacetic acid).
- Endotoxin Level
- Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg (<0.01 ng/µg) protein as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for one month, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored from -20°C to -70°C. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50-100 µg/mL in sterile buffer (PBS, HPBS, DPBS, or EBSS) containing carrier protein such as 0.2-1% BSA or HSA and stored in working aliquots at -20°C to -70°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- TGF-β1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse HT-2 cells induced by IL-4. The ED50 is from 0.05 to 0.2 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.5 to 2.0 x 107 Units/mg.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Additional Product Notes
Get a 50% discount on this product when purchased in our Activation Bundles. Restrictions apply. Learn more…
(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
- Product Citations
TGFβ1 is secreted by numerous cells.
- TGFβ1 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and survival, cell and tissue differentiation, development, inflammation, immunity, hematopoiesis, and tissue remodeling and repair. TGF-β1 is essential for wound healing, stimulates matrix molecule deposition and angiogenesis, and is an essential mediator of the pathologic scarring in fibrotic disorders.
- TGFβ1 binds to type II and type I serine/threonine kinase receptors, which initiate intracellular signals through activation of Smad proteins.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Biology, Immunology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Zou Z and Sun PD 2004. Prot Exp Purif 37:265.
2. Annes JP, et al. 2003. J Cell Sci 116:217.
3. Puthawala K, et al. 2008. Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 177:82.
4. Valcourt U, et al. 2005. Mol Biol Cell 16:1987.
5. Takatori H, et al. 2008. Mod Rheumatol DOI 10.1007/s10165-008-0099-z.
6. Manel N, et al. 2008. Nat Immunol. 9:641.
- Gene ID
- View information about TGF-beta1 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.