- 19D8 (See other available formats)
- Other Names
- Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b1), TGFB1, CED, DPD1
- Mouse IgG1, κ
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- Product Citations
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TGF-β1 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes. TGF-β1 is synthesized as a 390 amino acid precursor that is cleaved by furin, localized in the trans-Golgi network, in residue 278. Furin processes the TGF-β1 precursor at the carboxyl side of the consensus sequence RHRR which precedes the NH2-terminal Ala 279 residue of the mature TGF-β1. The TGF-β1 precursor includes the latency-associated peptide (LAP dimer) in the N-terminal portion and the 25 kD portion that constitutes the mature TGF-β1 in the C-terminal. LAP dimer and the TGF-β1 mature protein remain non-covalently associated after furin cleavage and this complex does not bind to the TFG-β1 receptor. In addition, the TGF-β1 latent complex is joined covalently through LAP to LTBP. The TGF-β1 active form requires dissociation from LAP. Some activators can release TGF-β1 from LAP such as thrombospondin-1, reactive oxygen species, and the integrins avb6 and avb8.
Mouse TGF-β1 converts naïve T cells into regulatory T (Treg) cells that prevent autoimmunity. Although human TGF-β1 is widely used for inducing FOXP3+ in vitro, it might not be an essential factor for human Treg differentiation. Th17 murine can be induced from naïve CD4+ T cells by the combination of TGF-β1 and IL-6 or IL-21. Nevertheless, the regulation of human Th17 differentiation is distinct. TGF-β1 seems to have dual effects on human Th17 differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. While TGF-β1 is required for the expression of RORgt, in human naïve CD4+ T cells from cord blood, TGF-β1 can inhibit the function of RORgt at high doses. By using serum-free medium, it has been clarified that the optimum conditions for human Th17 differentiation are TGF-β1, IL-1b, and IL-2 in combination with IL-6, IL-21, or IL-23.
- Human, Mouse
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- Human TGF-β1
- 0.2 µm filtered in phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing no preservative. Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg of the protein (<0.01 ng/µg of the protein) as determined by the LAL test.
- The LEAF™ (Low Endotoxin, Azide-Free) antibody was purified by affinity chromatography.
- 1.0 mg/ml
- Storage & Handling
- The TGF-β1 antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C. This LEAF™ solution contains no preservative; handle under aseptic conditions.
Block - Quality tested
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by blocking activity of human TGF-β1 (500 pg/ml) in Mv1Lu-(caga)12-Luc reporter cells. The ED50 is 0.05 - 0.1 µg/ml. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance for each application.
- Application Notes
ELISA Detection: To measure TGF-β1, this antibody can be used as a detection antibody in sandwich ELISA format, and paired with the purified 21C11 antibody (Cat. No. 525301) as the capture antibody. Recombinant Human TGF-β1 (ELISA Std.) (Cat. No. 580709) can be used as the protein standard.
Blocking: Clone 19D8 LEAF™ purified antibody (Endotoxin <0.1 EU/μg, Azide-Free, 0.2 μm filtered) is useful for in vitro blocking of human and mouse TGF-β1 bioactivity. The 19D8 clone does not inhibit the bioactivity of human TGF-β2 or TGF-β3 in the Mv1Lu-(caga)12-Luc reporter cell assay.
Note: For testing TGF-β1 in serum, plasma or supernatant, BioLegend's ELISA LEGEND MAX™ Kits (Cat. No. 436708 & 437708) are specially developed and recommended.
- Product Citations
AB_2561694 (BioLegend Cat. No. 521703)
AB_2561695 (BioLegend Cat. No. 521704)
TGF-β1 is secreted by numerous cells.
- TGF-β1 influences the fate of T cells into different subpopulations depending on the occurrence of other cytokines. TGF-β1 induces cell growth and survival, cell and tissue differentiation, development, inflammation, immunity, hematopoiesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and stimulates ECM deposition and angiogenesis. It is an essential mediator of pathologic scarring in fibrotic disorders.
- Multiple cells express the TGF-β1 receptors.
- Ligand Receptor
- Heterodimeric receptor consisting of type I (TbRI) and type II (TbRII).
- Biology Area
- Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Biology, Cell Cycle/DNA Replication, Immunology, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Dubois CM, et al. 1995. J. Biol. Chem. 270:10618.
2. Dennler S, et al. 1998. EMBO J. 17:3091.
3. Annes JP, et al. 2003. J. Cell. Sci. 116:217.
4. Zou Z and Sun PD. 2004. Protein Expr. Purif. 37:265.
5. Park SH, 2005. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 38:9.
6. Valcourt U, et al. 2005. Mol. Biol. Cell. 16:1987.
7. Mucida D, et al. 2007. Science 317:256.
8. Acosta-Rodriguez EV, et al. 2007. Nat. Immunol. 8:942.
9. Puthawala K, et al. 2008. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 177:82.
10. Takatori H, et al. 2008. Mod. Rheumatol. 18:533.
11. Manel N, et al. 2008. Nat. Immunol. 9:641.
12. Veldhoen M, et al. 2008. Nat. Immunol. 9:1341.
13. Oida T, et al. 2011. PLoS ONE 6:e18365.
- Gene ID
- 7040 View all products for this Gene ID 21803 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about TGF-beta1 on UniProt.org
- Does BioLegend test each LEAF™ antibody by functional assay?
No, BioLegend does not test LEAF™ antibodies by functional assays unless otherwise indicated. Due to the possible complexities and variations of uses of biofunctional antibodies in different assays and because of the large product portfolio, BioLegend does not currently perform functional assays as a routine QC for the antibodies. However, we do provide references in which the antibodies were used for functional assays and we do perform QC to verify the specificity and quality of the antibody based on our strict specification criteria.
- Do you guarantee that your antibodies are totally pathogen free?
BioLegend does not test for pathogens in-house aside from the GoInVivo™ product line. However, upon request, this can be tested on a custom basis with an outside, independent laboratory.
- Does BioLegend test each LEAF™ antibody for potential pathogens?
No, BioLegend does not test for pathogens in-house unless otherwise indicated. However, we can recommend an outside vendor to perform this testing as needed.
- Have you tested this LEAF™/Ultra-LEAF™ antibody for in vivo or in vitro applications?
We don't test our antibodies for in vivo or in vitro applications unless otherwise indicated. Depending on the product, the TDS may describe literature supporting usage of a particular product for bioassay. It may be best to further consult the literature to find clone specific information.
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