- STA (See other available formats)
- Regulatory Status
- V A013
- Other Names
- VCAM-1, INCAM-110
- Mouse IgG1, κ
- Ave. Rating
- Submit a Review
- Product Citations
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CD106 is a 110 kD single chain type I glycoprotein also known as VCAM-1 and INCAM-110. It is expressed predominantly on activated vascular endothelium but has also been identified on follicular and interfollicular dendritic cells, some macrophages, bone marrow stromal cells, and non-vascular cell populations within joints, kidney, muscle, heart, placenta, and brain. Expression on endothelial cells as well as many other cells is induced by inflammatory stimuli and cytokines. Activated endothelial cells can release soluble forms of CD106 which can be detected in the blood. CD106 binds the integrins CD49d/CD29 (VLA-4) and α4β7 that contribute to leukocyte adhesion, transmigration, and co-stimulation of T cell proliferation.Product Details
- Verified Reactivity
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide and BSA (origin USA)
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography, and conjugated with PE under optimal conditions.
- Lot-specific (to obtain lot-specific concentration, please enter the lot number in our Concentration and Expiration Lookup or Certificate of Analysis online tools.)
- Storage & Handling
- The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
FC - Quality tested
SB - Reported in the literature, not verified in house
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by immunofluorescent staining with flow cytometric analysis. For flow cytometric staining, the suggested use of this reagent is 5 µl per million cells in 100 µl staining volume or 5 µl per 100 µl of whole blood.
- Excitation Laser
Blue Laser (488 nm)
Green Laser (532 nm)/Yellow-Green Laser (561 nm)
- Application Notes
Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunofluorescence3, immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections, immunoprecipitation2, ELISA2 capture for sCD106, and spatial biology (IBEX)5,6.
- Additional Product Notes
Iterative Bleaching Extended multi-pleXity (IBEX) is a fluorescent imaging technique capable of highly-multiplexed spatial analysis. The method relies on cyclical bleaching of panels of fluorescent antibodies in order to image and analyze many markers over multiple cycles of staining, imaging, and, bleaching. It is a community-developed open-access method developed by the Center for Advanced Tissue Imaging (CAT-I) in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH).
- Application References
- Schlossman S, et al. Eds. 1995. Leucocyte Typing V. Oxford University Press. New York.
- Leca G, et al. 1995. J. Immunol. 154:1069. (ELISA IP)
- Yen YT, et al. 2006. J. Virol. 80:2648. (IF) PubMed
- Dmitrieva NI, et al. 2015. PloS One.10:128870. PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2020. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 117:33455-33465. (SB) PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2022. Nat Protoc. 17:378-401. (SB) PubMed
- Product Citations
AB_314561 (BioLegend Cat. No. 305805)
AB_314562 (BioLegend Cat. No. 305806)
- Ig superfamily, type I glycoprotein, 110 kD
Activated endothelial cells, endothelial progenitors, follicular dendritic cells
- Leukocyte adhesion, transmigration, costimulation
- VLA-4 (CD49d/CD29)
- Cell Type
- Dendritic cells, Endothelial cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Adhesion, Cell Biology, Immunology, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Adhesion Molecules, CD Molecules
- Antigen References
1. Carlos T, et al. 1994. Blood 84:2068.
2. Jones E, et al. 1995. Nature 373:539.
- Gene ID
- 7412 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CD106 on UniProt.org
- What type of PE do you use in your conjugates?
- We use R-PE in our conjugates.
- If an antibody clone has been previously successfully used in IBEX in one fluorescent format, will other antibody formats work as well?
It’s likely that other fluorophore conjugates to the same antibody clone will also be compatible with IBEX using the same sample fixation procedure. Ultimately a directly conjugated antibody’s utility in fluorescent imaging and IBEX may be specific to the sample and microscope being used in the experiment. Some antibody clone conjugates may perform better than others due to performance differences in non-specific binding, fluorophore brightness, and other biochemical properties unique to that conjugate.
- Will antibodies my lab is already using for fluorescent or chromogenic IHC work in IBEX?
Fundamentally, IBEX as a technique that works much in the same way as single antibody panels or single marker IF/IHC. If you’re already successfully using an antibody clone on a sample of interest, it is likely that clone will have utility in IBEX. It is expected some optimization and testing of different antibody fluorophore conjugates will be required to find a suitable format; however, legacy microscopy techniques like chromogenic IHC on fixed or frozen tissue is an excellent place to start looking for useful antibodies.
- Are other fluorophores compatible with IBEX?
Over 18 fluorescent formats have been screened for use in IBEX, however, it is likely that other fluorophores are able to be rapidly bleached in IBEX. If a fluorophore format is already suitable for your imaging platform it can be tested for compatibility in IBEX.
- The same antibody works in one tissue type but not another. What is happening?
Differences in tissue properties may impact both the ability of an antibody to bind its target specifically and impact the ability of a specific fluorophore conjugate to overcome the background fluorescent signal in a given tissue. Secondary stains, as well as testing multiple fluorescent conjugates of the same clone, may help to troubleshoot challenging targets or tissues. Using a reference control tissue may also give confidence in the specificity of your staining.
- How can I be sure the staining I’m seeing in my tissue is real?
In general, best practices for validating an antibody in traditional chromogenic or fluorescent IHC are applicable to IBEX. Please reference the Nature Methods review on antibody based multiplexed imaging for resources on validating antibodies for IBEX.
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|Purified anti-human CD106||STA||FC, IHC-P, ICC, IP, ELISA|
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