- Other Names
- T-cell surface protein tactile, TACTILE, Cell surface antigen CD96, T cell-activated increased late expression protein
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- Product Citations
CD96, also known as TACTILE (T cell-activated increased late expression), is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, belonging to the Ig superfamily. It is expressed on NK cells and T cells (upregulated after activation), but not on normal B cells and myeloid cells. CD96 is also found on some acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), as a leukemia stem cell-specific marker. A soluble form of CD96 has been found in serum. Human CD96, but not mouse CD96, is expressed as two isoforms due to alternative splicing. The main ligand of CD96 is CD155 (PVR), along with CD226 (DNAM-1) and TIGIT, and the binding is species-specific. Mouse CD96 has been reported to interact with nectin-1 (CD111), but human CD96 does not. CD96 may play an inhibitory role in immune responses. In CD96 deficient mice, NK cells produce more IFN-γ upon LPS treatment. In addition, CD96 negatively regulates NK cell function in mice, and blockade of CD96 with antibodies promotes anti-tumor responses and anti-metastatic activity in combination with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1. CD96 is considered to mediate activated T cell and NK cell adhesion to CD155-expressing target cells. CD96 also counterbalances CD226, which activates NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, via competing CD155 binding.Product Details
- Host Species
- 293E cells
- Mouse CD96, amino acids Glu25-Met536 (Accession # Q3U0X8.1), with a C-terminal 6x His tag, was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 518 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 57.21 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 115 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Glu.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10-25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. (Please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- When recombinant mouse CD155-Fc Chimera (Cat. No.786602) is immobilized at 2 µg/mL, mouse CD96 binds with EC50 of 20 - 80 ng/mL in a functional ELISA. HRP anti-His Tag antibody (Cat. No. 652503) was used to detect the binding.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Ig superfamily
Positive on most peripheral T cells, NK cells and upregulated when activated.
- CD96 is involved in NK cell adhesion and cytotoxicity via CD155.
- CD155, nectin 1
- Measured by its ability to bind mouse CD155
- Cell Type
- NK cells, NKT cells, T cells
- Biology Area
- Adaptive Immunity, Immunology
- Molecular Family
- Soluble Receptors
- Antigen References
- Wang PL, et al. 1992. J. Immunol. 148: 2600.
- Meyer D, et al. 2009. J. Biol. Chem. 284: 2235.
- Hosen N et al. 20Du W, et al. 2015. Mol. Clin. Oncol. 3:833. 07. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 11008.
- Du W, et al. 2015. Mol. Clin. Oncol. 3:833.
- Blake SJ, et al. 2016. Clin. Cancer Res. 22:5183.
- Chan CJ, et al. 2014. Nat. Immunol. 15: 431.
- Sanchez-Correa B, et al. 2019. Cancer 11: 877.
- Xu Z, Jin B. 2010. Cell. Mol. Immunol. 7: 11.
- Georgiev H, et al. 2018. Front Immunol. 9:1072.
- Fuchs A, et al. 2004. J. Immunol. 172:3994.
- Seth S, et al. 2007. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 364: 959.
- Gene ID
- 84544 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CD96 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.