- Other Names
- Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-AA, Glioma-derived growth factor (GDGF), Osteosarcoma-derived Growth Factor (ODGF)
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- Product Citations
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Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are homo- or heterodimers of four polypeptides, known as A, B, C and D chains. PDGFs usually acts primarily in paracrine manner and may be engaged in autocrine loops in tumors. Five PDGF isoforms (AA, BB, AB, CC and DD) have been identified. PDGFs are primarily synthesized, stored, and released by platelets upon activation. PDGF-A and PDGF-B undergo intracellular activation during transport in the exocytic pathway and PDGF-C and PDGF-B are activated by extracellular proteases. Like PDGF-B, intracellular activation of PDGF-A, by removing the N-terminal sequence, is required for PDGF-A to bind to its receptor. PDGF-A can also be expressed by epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and neuronal progenitors. PDGF-AA is well known as a potent mitogen for the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). PDGF-AA can promote embryonic forebrain neural stem cells into O4-positive oligodendrocytes by activating Erk pathway. PDGF-AA also plays an important role in directing cell migration during embryonic development and postnatal migration response including wound healing. Chemotaxis abilty of PDGF-AA has been shown on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, monocytes, and granulocytes.Product Details
- Human PDGF-AA, amino acids Ser87-Thr211 (Accession# NP_002598.4), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 125 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 14.3 kD. This protein exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer and the predicted molecular mass is 28.5 kD. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ser.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis.
- Lyophilized, carrier-free.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg of protein.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer, such as 5% Trehalose, and store working aliquots at -20°C to -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- The ED50 as determined by the dose-dependent stimulation of thymidine uptake by BALB/c 3T3 cells is ≤ 1 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of ≥ 1 x 106 units/mg.
- Application Notes
This product is reactive with human, dog, monkey, mouse, and rat.
- Product Citations
- Disulfide-linked homodimer
- Platelets produce PDGF-AA. Other cells, including epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and neuronal progenitors, can also produce PDGF-AA.
- PDGF-A has two isoforms due to alternative splicing which is cell type-specific and is different among organs and tumor cell lines. Expression of PDGF-A can be increased in human uterine smooth muscle cells during the physiological hypertrophy. Expression of PDGF-A can be repressed by glucocorticoid treatment of smooth muscle cells and aging of human fibroblasts.
- Smooth muscle cells, connective tissue cells, bone and cartilage cells, and oligodendrocyte cells.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Angiogenesis, Cell Biology, Immunology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience Cell Markers, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Heldin CH and Westermark B. 1999. Physiol. Rev. 79:1283.
2. Fredriksson L, et al. 2004. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:197.
3. Hu JG, et al. 2012. J. Mol. Neurosci. 46:644.
4. Schneider L, et al. 2010. Cell Physiol. Biochem. 25:279.
5. Karlsson C and Paulsson Y. 1994. J. Cell Physiol. 158:256.
6. Shure D, et al. 1992. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 186:1510.
- Gene ID
- 5154 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about PDGF-AA on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.