- Other Names
- Small-inducible cytokine B16 (SCYB16), Scavenger receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (SRPSOX)
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- Product Citations
CXCL16 is a transmembrane chemokine and ligand for CXCR6 that was initially identified by bioinformatics. CXCL16 is a non-ELR CXC chemokine, and it contains a 110 amino acid spacer region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. The spacer domain is similar to a region present in CX3CL1. This region is rich in serine, threonine, proline, and highly glycosylated: a characteristic distinctive of mucin structures. Soluble CXCL16 is present in supernatants of macrophages and is upregulated by LPS and TNFα treatment. ADAM10 participates in the constitutive shedding of transmembrane chemokines (CXCL16 and CX3CL1). Treatment of cells expressing CXCL16 or CX3CL1 with PMA and ionomycin increases the shedding of these chemokines. ADAM17 seems to participate in the PMA-induced shedding of CXCL16 in glial cells; in keratinocytes, ADAM10, but not ADAM17, participates in the shedding. CXCL16 and CXCR6 play key roles in tumor progression and bone metastasis in prostate cancer. In this system, CXCL16 recruits MSC mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) (under activation) are differentiated to cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) which secrete CXCL12, which subsequently promotes metastasis. CXCL16 has been detected in clinical samples of lymphoma patients. Also, CXCL16 participates in bone homeostasis; TGF-β1 induces CXCL16 and LIF production in osteoclasts, which regulate recruitment of osteoblasts to re-establish the bone lost during the resorptive phase of bone turnover.Product Details
- Human CXCL16, amino acids (Asn49-Pro137) (Accession# M_001100812.1) was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 89 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 10 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 13 and 14 kD by SDS-PAGE respectively. The N-terminal amino acid is Asn.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for three months, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 10 µg/mL in sterile buffer (PBS, HPBS, DPBS, and EBSS) containing carrier protein such as 1% BSA or HSA. After dilution, the cytokine can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for one month or from -20°C to -70°C for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Bioactivity was measured by its property to chemoattract Baf3-hCXCR6 transfectants in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 = 0.5 — 3 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
- B cells, monocytes, macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, bronchial epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, keratinocytes, glioma cells, astrocytes.
- CXCL16 plays a role in T cell-DC interaction and movement of activated T cells in the splenic red pulp region. CXCL16 also functions as a scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoproteins. CXCL16 expression is induced by inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TNFα, IFNγ).
- Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), natural killer T (NKT) cells, activated CD8 and CD4 T cells, human gingival fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells.
- Ligand Receptor
- CXCR6 (CD186).
- Cell Type
- Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Cell Motility/Cytoskeleton/Structure, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Matloubian M, et al. 2000. Nat. Immunol. 1:298.
2. Wilbanks A, et al. 2001. J. Immunol. 166:5145.
3. Able S, et al. 2004. J. Immunol. 172:6362.
4. Ludwig A, et al. 2005. J. Neurochem. 93:1293.
5. Hundhausen C, et al. 2007. J. Immunol. 178:8064.
6. Scholz F, et al. 2007. J. Invest. Dermatol. 127:1444.
7. Hosokawa Y, et al. 2009. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 156:413.
8. Jung Y, et al. 2013. Nat. Commun. 4:1795.
9. Ota K, et al. 2013. Bone 57:68.
- Gene ID
- 58191 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CXCL16 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.