- Other Names
- Leukemia Inhibitory Factor, HILDA (human interleukin in DA cells), MLPLI (melanoma-derived LPL inhibitor), DIA (differentiation-inducing factor)
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Human LIF stands for Leukemia Inhibitory Factor. It belongs to the IL-6 family of cytokines, and is a variably glycosylated, secreted protein with a mass of 38 – 67 kD. The mature form has 180 amino acids and contains six conserved cysteines, which form three intramolecular disulfide bonds. The protein itself forms a four-helix bundle fold. Human LIF shares 78% amino acid identity with mouse LIF.
LIF is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in cellular development, inflammation, immunology, and neoplasia. It often has contradictory effects within different contexts, either stimulating cell proliferation, or inducing differentiation of mouse M1 leukemic myeloid cell line into macrophages. With cultured embryonic stem cells, LIF has been an important laboratory tool to help maintain stem cell pluripotency for cell cultures. It is involved in the mechanisms of embryonic implantation, inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, immunomodulation, carcinogenesis, and neoplasia-associated cachexia.
LIF binds to both LIF Rα and gp130 on the cell surface to form a heterotrimeric complex, which initiates cell signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway. LIF can also activate the MAPK, PI3K, and p53 signaling pathways. Soluble forms of both binding partners do exist in circulation and potentially serve to further regulate LIF action.
- Human LIF, amino acids (Ser23-Phe202) (Accession# NP_002300.1), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The predicted molecular mass of human LIF is approximately 20 kD.
- >97%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- Lyophilized in sterile-filtered PBS, pH 7.2, containing 1% BSA, 0.09% sodium azide, and protease inhibitors.
- Storage & Handling
- Immediately upon receipt, store unopened vials between 2°C and 8°C and use within 12 months from date of receipt. Prior to use, reconstitute the lyophilized powder with 0.2 mL of PBS containing a carrier protein (e.g., 1% BSA, protease free), pH 7.4. Re-cap vial and vortex. Allow the reconstituted standard to sit at room temperature for 15 minutes and then vortex again to mix completely. The reconstituted standard stock solution can be aliquoted into polypropylene vials and stored at -70°C for up to one month. Do not re-use diluted standards. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles.
ELISA - Quality tested
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this protein is quality control tested by ELISA assay. For use as an ELISA standard, a standard curve comprised of two-fold dilutions from 1,000 to 15.6 pg/ml is suggested. It is recommended that each lot of the reagent be titrated for optimal performance of each application.
- Application Notes
This LIF protein is useful as a standard for a human LIF sandwich ELISA, using purified anti-human LIF antibody (clone Poly5233) for capture and biotinylated anti-human LIF antibody (clone M017C3) for detection.
- Four-helix bundle fold.
Expressed in the trophectoderm of the developing embryo and activated CD4+ T cells.
- LIF is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in cellular development, inflammation, immunology, and neoplasia.
- Embryonic stem cells.
- LIF Rα, gp130
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Immunology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Metcalf D. 1991. Int. J. Cell Cloning 2:95-108.
2. Zhang JG, et al. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 17:10798.
3. Kamohara H, et al. 2007. Int. J. Oncol. 4:977.
4. Marshall MK, et al. 1994. Endocrinology 135:141.
5. Vogiagis D, Salamonsen LA. 1999. J. Endocrinol. 160:181.
6. Zouein FA, et al. 2013. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 24:11.
7. Mathieu ME, et al. 2012. Stem Cell Rev. 8:1.
8. Hu W, et al. 2007. Nature 450:721.
9. Trouillas M, et al. 2009. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 20:51.
10. Metcalfe SM. 2011. Genes Immun. 3:157.
- Gene ID
- 3976 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about LIF on UniProt.org