Maturation Markers

Learn about the developmental stages of lymphoid cells, myeloid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Then, explore the markers expressed at each stage in convenient diagrams of mouse and human pathways.


Maintenance of the mammalian blood system is dependent on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs are long-living multipotent stem cells with the potential to differentiate into all blood cell lineages. In mammals, hematopoiesis takes place in different sites (yolk sac, aorta-gonad mesonephros (AGM), and fetal liver) during embryogenesis. In adults, this occurs primarily in the bone marrow.


The classical model of hematopoiesis is viewed as a tree in which HSCs sequentially branch out into lineage-restricted progenitors of erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid, and megakaryocytic lineages. Each progenitor is believed to represent a homogeneous population of cells with the equal potential to give rise to multiple lineages simultaneously.


However, despite evidence for hierarchical hematopoietic differentiation, studies have provided evidence suggesting there is clonal heterogeneity of multipotent and oligopotent progenitors. For example, it has been shown that on a population level, mouse CMPs are able to produce cells of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. Single-cell differentiation analysis of CMPs suggest that each clone is programmed to give rise to one type of blood cell only (i.e., macrophage, neutrophil, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, etc.) Similar studies have also been done on other mouse and human progenitors including LMPP and GMPs.


Discover how cells like monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells arise from bone marrow progenitors.

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Explore how lymphocytes like T and B cells undergo selection and develop into effective peripheral immune cells.

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Examine how key blood components like erythrocytes and platelets mature and change marker expression.

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References >


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