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LT-HSC (Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cell)

LT-HSCs are pluripotent cells which give rise to all blood cell populations of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages and  persist throughout the entire life-span. They have the potential to self-renew sustaining the stem cell pool or differentiate into ST-HSCs and other multi-, oligo-, and unipotent progenitors which give rise to terminally differentiated cells.

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)+

CD34-

CD135 (Flt3)-

CD150 (SLAM)+

ST-HSC (Short-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cell)

ST-HSCs are multipotent progenitors with a short-term renewal potential as compared to LT-HSCs. It is believed that ST-HSCs differentiate from the daughter cell during an asymmetrical division of LT-HSCs. ST-HSCs can give rise to other multi-, oligo-, and unipotent progenitors which give rise to terminally differentiated cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages.

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)+

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)-

CD150 (SLAM)-

MPP (Multipotent Progenitor)

MPPs are multipotent progenitors derived from ST-HSCs. They can give rise to another multipotent progenitor, LMPPs, or oligopotent and unipotent progenitors which give rise to terminally differentiated cells.

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)+

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)low

CD150 (SLAM)-

LMPP (Lymphoid-Primed Multipotent Progenitor)

LMPPs are responsible for the generation of lymphocytes and pDCs through subsequent differentiation steps including CLPs and pre-pDCs respectively. LMPPs were originally thought to be a homogeneous population of precursors containing multipotent cells with the equal potential to differentiate into several lymphoid lineages. However, a recent study has demonstrated that LMPP is a heterogeneous population of cells comprising unipotent clones with a non-overlapping lineage differentiation potential (21).

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)+

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)hi

CD150 (SLAM)-

CD127 (IL-7Rα)-

CMP (Common Myeloid Progenitor)

CMPs are oligopotent progenitor derived from MPPs. This progenitor can differentiate into erythroid and myeloid lineages. It was originally believed that CMPs were a homogeneous population of precursor cells containing multipotent cells with the equal potential to differentiate into both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. However, a recent study has demonstrated that instead CMPs are a heterogeneous population of cells comprised of unipotent clones with a non-overlapping potential to give rise to an erythroid or myeloid lineage of cells (11,12).

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)+/-

CD150 (SLAM)+/-

CD105 (Endoglin)-

CD16/32low

GMP (Granulocyte-Monocyte Progenitor)

GMPs are oligopotent progenitor derived from CMPs. This progenitor gives rise to monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils), and some tissue dendritic cells through differentiation steps including GPs and cMOPs. A recent study suggests that GMPs are a heterogeneous population of cells comprised of unipotent clones with a nonoverlapping potential to give rise to monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes (11). In order to separate GMPs (Ly-6C-) from GPs (Ly-6C+) and cMOP/MPs (Ly-6C+) , you can use Ly-6G in the lineage mix, instead of Gr-1 which recognizes both Ly-6C and Ly-6G.

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)-

CD16/32hi

Ly-6C-

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

GP (Granulocyte Progenitor)

GPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from GMPs. This progenitor gives rise to neutrophils and possibly other granulocytic lineages such as basophils and eosinophils.

 

Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Ly-6G-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)-

CD16/32hi

Ly-6C+

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

cMOP/MP (Common Monocyte Progenitor/Monocyte Progenitor)

cMOP/MPs are oligopotent progenitor cells derived from GMPs and MDPs. cMOP/MPs differentiate to Ly-6Chi and Ly-6Clow monocytes which can differentiate further into macrophages and dendritic cells.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Ly-6G-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)-

CD16/32hi

Ly-6C+

CD115 (CSF-1R)+

MDP (Monocyte-Dendritic Cell Progenitor)

MDPs are oligopotent progenitors which give rise to monocytes and dendritic cell populations (cDC1, cDC2, pDC). The relationship between MDPs and other progenitor populations is not fully understood.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1- or Ly-6G-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)+

Ly-6C-

CD115 (CSF-1R)+

CDP (Common-Dendritic Cell Progenitor)

CDPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from Monocyte-Dendritic Cell Progenitors (MDPs). They give rise to all dendritic cell populations (pDC, cDC1, and cDC2) via subsequent differentiation into Pre-cDCs (Precursor of Conventional Dendritic Cells ) and Pre-pDCs (Precursor of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells).


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1- or Ly6G-, CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)int/low

Sca-1 (Ly-6A)-

CD34+

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)+

CLP (Common Lymphoid Progenitor)

CLPs are multipotent progenitors derived from Lymphoid Multipotent Progenitors (LMPPs). It gives rise to all lymphoid lineages including T cells, B cells and NK cells.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1- ,CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)int/low

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD127 (IL-7Rα)+

Pre-pDC (Precursor of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells)

Pre-pDCs are unipotent progenitors which give rise to pDCs. It is believed that pre-pDCs are derived either from CDPs or LMPPs likely through the CLP stage.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Gr-1- ,CD11c-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)int/low

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

CD127 (IL-7Rα)-

Pre-cDC (Precursor of Conventional/Classical Dendritic Cells)

Pre-cDCs are derived from CDPs and give rise to classical/conventional dendritic cell populations, cDC1 and cDC2s. In mice, several pre-cDC subsets have been identified with varying expression of Siglec-H and Ly6C. Siglec-H and Ly6C serve as lineage markers that can distinguish pre-cDC subpopulations committed to the either the cDC1 (Siglec-H-Ly6C-) or cDC2 lineages (Siglec-H-Ly6C+) (14).


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD45R/B220- or CD19-, CD11b-, Ly6G-, NK1.1-)

CD117 (c-kit)low

CD11clow

MHC IIlow

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD172a (SIRPα)low

pDC (Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell)

pDCs are derived from Pre-pDC s in the bone marrow. pDCs play key role in antiviral responses and produce IFN type I cytokines.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD19-, NK1.1-)

CD11c+

Siglec H+

CD45R/B220+

CD317 (BST2)+

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping, and DC function with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

cDC1 (Conventional/Classical Dendritic Cell I)

cDC1s, also known as CD8α+ DCs, are derived from Pre-cDCs in the bone marrow. cDC1s one of the key antigen presenting cells responsible for cross-presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells and priming of Th1 and Treg cells.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD19-, NK1.1-)

CD11chi

MHC IIhi

CD24+

CD8a+

CD370 (CLEC9a, DNGR1)+

CD11blow

CD172a (Sirp1α)low

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping, and DC function with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

cDC2 (Conventional/Classical Dendritic Cell II)

cDC2s, also known as CD11b+ DCs, are derived from Pre-cDCs at steady-state or from monocytes during inflammation in the tissue. cDC2s are one of the key antigen presenting cells responsible for priming of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells.


Mouse Markers:

Lin- (Ter119-, CD3-, CD19-, NK1.1-)

CD11chi

MHC IIhi

CD24+

CD8alo/-

CD370 (CLEC9a, DNGR1)lo/-

CD11b+

CD172a (Sirp1α)+

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping, and DC function with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Tissue Resident Dendritic Cells

Tissue-resident dendritic cells are derived from Pre-cDCs during steady-state or from monocytes during inflammation in the tissue. Tissue-resident cells are subcategorized into CD103+ and CD11b+ cells.


Mouse Markers:

CD45+

CD11chi

MHC IIhi

CD11b+/-

CD103+/-

 

To learn more about heterogeneity, tissue distribution, and the function of dendritic cell subsets check out our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Macrophage (Mφ)

Macrophages are a part of the mononuclear phagocytic system. They play a critical role in inflammatory responses involving bacterial infections and tissue injuries. Originally, tissue-resident macrophages are derived from the embryonic precursor in the yolk sac. In adulthood, the peripheral pool of macrophages is maintained by monocytes.


Mouse Markers:

MerTK+

F4/80+

CD11b+

CD172a (SIRPα)+

CD68+

 

Learn more about macrophage heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers on our Macrophage Webpage .

Basophil

Basophils belong to a subclass of granulocytes differentiated in the bone marrow from the GMP precursor. Basophils circulate in the blood and control allergy responses by performing different functions, including production of histamine and regulation of IgE levels via secretion of IL-4 cytokine.


Mouse Markers:

SSChi

CD200R3+

FcεRIα+

Eosinophil

Eosinophils belong to a subclass of granulocytes differentiated in the bone marrow from the GMP precursor. eosinophils have been shown to play an essential role in parasite infections (i.e. helminth infection) and some allergic reactions including asthma. eosinophils are potent mediators of T helper responses by production of Th1 (i.e., IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-25) and Th2 (IL-12, IFN-γ) cytokines.


Mouse Markers:

SSChi

CD11b+

Siglec-F+

F4/80+

CD125 (IL-5Rα)+

CD193 (CCR3)+

Neutrophil

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes circulating in the blood. The lifespan of neutrophils is very short. The daily replenishment of the neutrophil peripheral pool happens via differentiation of neutrophils from GPs in the bone marrow. neutrophils patrol blood vessels, scavenging for pathogen-derived antigens and are one of the primary innate immune subsets to be recruited to sites of inflammation where they produce a plethora of antimicrobial peptides and proteins including α-defensins, lysozymes, and lactoferrin.


Mouse Markers:

SSChi

Ly6G+

Ly-6G/Ly-6C (Gr-1)+

CD11b+

Ly6Clow/-

CD16/32 (FCγRIII)+

LC (Langerhans Cell)

LCs are members of dendritic cell family and serve as antigen presenting cells in the skin. Unlike other dendritic cell types, LCs are derived from progenitors residing in the yolk sac during embryogenesis. In adulthood, the peripheral pool of LCs can be replenished by monocytes.


Mouse Markers:

CD45+

CD11c+

MHC II+

CD207 (Langerin)+

CD324 (E-Cadherin)+

CD326 (EpCAM)+

CD205+

CD11b+

 

Learn more about Langerhans cells and other DC subtypes with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Microglia

Microglia are specialized antigen presenting cells identified in brain parenchyma. Microglia cells are derived from erythromyeloid progenitors in the yolk sac during primitive hematopoiesis around embryonic day 7.5-8 (E7.5-8). At steady-state, microglia cells are responsible for the removal of dead neurons and Aβ peptides, secretion of trophic factors such as BDNF, and synapse pruning. Under inflammatory signals, microglial cells become activated and differentiate into effective APCs.


Mouse Markers:

CD45low

CD11c- (upregulated upon activation)

MHC IIlow (upregulated upon activation)

P2RY12+

Iba-1+

CD68low

MerTK+

F4/80+

CD11b+

CX3CR1+

 

Learn more about Microglia cells and other myeloid cells in the CNS with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Microglia Webpage.

Ly6Chi Monocyte (Classical Monocyte or Inflammatory Monocyte)

Monocyte development includes several precursor cells including GMPs, MDPs, and cMOPs. Upon inflammatory stimuli, Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into inflamed tissues where they secrete pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-α, iNOS, IL-12, type 1 interferons) and give rise to inflammatory M1 macrophages and dendritic cells.


Mouse Markers:

SSCint

Ly6Chi or Gr-1int

CD115+

CD11b+

F4/80int

CX3CR1+

CCR2hi

CD43+

 

Learn more about monocyte heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers on our Monocyte Webpage.

Ly6Clow Monocyte (Non-classical or Resident Monocyte)

Ly6Clow monocytes are derived from either Ly6Chi monocytes or directly from upstream progenitors such as cMOPs. At steady-state, Ly6Clow monocytes patrol blood vessels. During inflammation, they can enter tissue and develop into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages eliciting wound repair.


Mouse Markers:

SSCint

Ly6Clow or Gr-1low

CD115+

CD11b+

F4/80int

CX3CR1hi

CCR2+

CD43hi

 

Learn more about monocyte heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers on our Monocyte Webpage .

HSC (Hematopoietic Stem Cell)

HSCs are pluripotent cells which give rise to all blood cell populations of lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages and persist throughout the lifespan. They have the potential to self-renew to sustain the stem cell pool or differentiate into other multi-, oligo-, and unipotent progenitors which give rise to terminally differentiated cells (1-3, 5, 6).

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-, CD11c-)

CD45RA-

CD34+

CD38-

CD90+

CD135 (Flt3)+

MPP (Multipotent Progenitor)

MPPs are multipotent progenitors derived from HSCs. They can give rise to other multipotent progenitor (LMPPs), or oligopotent and unipotent progenitors (i.e., CMPs, GMPs, or MDPs), which give rise to terminally differentiated cells of lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages (1-3, 5, 6).

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335- , CD11c-)

CD34+

CD38-

CD90-

CD45RA-

CD135 (Flt3)+

LMPP (Lymphoid-Primed Multipotent Progenitor)

LMPPs are multipotent progenitors derived from MPPs. They generate all cells in the lymphoid lineage and pDCs.

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-, CD11c-)

CD34+

CD38-

CD90-

CD45RA+

CD10-

CD135 (Flt3)+

MLP (Multi Lymphoid Progenitor)

MLPs are multipotent progenitors derived from LMPPs. They generate all cells in the lymphoid lineage and pDCs.

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335- , CD11c-)

CD34+

CD38-

CD45RA+

CD10+

CD7+

CD90-

CD135 (Flt3)+

CMP (Common Myeloid Progenitor)

CMPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from MPPs. This progenitor can differentiate into erythroid and myeloid lineages.

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-, CD11c-)

CD34+

CD38+

CD90-

CD45RA-

CD10-

CD123int

CD135 (Flt3)+

GMDP (Granulocyte/Monocyte/Dendritic Cell Progenitor)

GMDPs are oligopotent progenitors including GMPs. GMDPs originate from CMPs and have potential to differentiate to neutrophils (and possibly eosinophils and basophils), monocytes, and all dendritic cell populations.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335- , CD11c-)

CD117 (c-kit)hi

CD34+

CD38+

CD45RA+

CD123int

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

CD116 (GM-CSFRα)-

CD11c-

HLA-DR+

CD33+

GMP (Granulocyte-Monocyte Progenitor)

GMPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from CMPs. Recent studies have shown that GMPs are a heterogeneous population of cells containing oligopotent progenitors such as GMDPs, MDPs, and CDPs. GMDPs differentiate to all myeloid lineages including mono/macs, granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils), and dendritic cells, while MDPs and CDPs give rise to monocytes and dendritic cells or only dendritic cells, respectively (5).


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335- , CD11c-)

CD34+

CD38+

CD90-

CD45RA+

CD123hi/low

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD10-

CD115 (CSF-1R)+/-

CD116 (GM-CSFRα)+/-

MDP (Monocyte-Dendritic Cell Progenitor)

MDPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from GMDPs which give rise to monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cell populations.

 

Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD34+

CD38hi

CD45RA+

CD123int

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)+

CD116 (GM-CSFRα)-

CD11clow/-

HLA-DR+

CD33+

CDP (Common-Dendritic Cell Progenitor)

CDPs are oligopotent progenitors derived from MDPs. They give rise to all dendritic cell populations via subsequent differentiation into Pre-cDCs.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD34+

CD38hi

CD45RA+

CD123hi

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

CD116 (GM-CSFRα)hi/low

CD11c+

HLA-DR+

CD33+

Pre-cDC (Precursor of Conventional/Classical Dendritic Cells)

Pre-cDCs are derived from CDPs. They give rise to both classical/conventional CD141+ and CD1c+ dendritic cell populations.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD19-, CD56-, CD10-, CD14-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD34-

CD38+

CD45RA+

CD123int

CD135 (Flt3)+

CD115 (CSF-1R)-

CD116 (GM-CSFRα)+

CD11c+

HLA-DR+

CD33+

pDC (Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell)

pDCs are derived from LMPPs. They play a key role in antiviral responses and are a major producers of IFN type I cytokines.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD20-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD45RAhi

CD303 (BDCA-2)+

CD123hi

CD11clow

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping and DC function with our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Tissue Resident Dendritic Cells

Tissue-resident dendritic cells are derived from pre-cDCs (Precursor of Conventional DCs) during steady-state or from monocytes during inflammation in the tissue. In some tissues, like intestine, tissue-resident cells are subcategorized into CD103+ or CD11b+ cells. In the dermis, tissue-resident cells can be subcategorized based on CD14 expression.


Human Markers:

CD45+

CD141 (BDCA-3)+/-

CD103+/-

XCR1+/-

CD1c (BDCA-1)+/-

CD11c+

HLA-DR+

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping and DC function on our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Macrophage (Mφ)

Macrophages are a part of the mononuclear phagocytic system. They play a critical role in inflammatory responses involving bacterial infections and tissue injuries. Originally, tissue-resident macrophages are derived from the embryonic precursor in the yolk sac. In adulthood, the peripheral pool of macrophages is maintained by monocytes.


Human Markers:

CD11b+

CD64+

CD68+

 

Learn more about macrophage heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers on our Macrophage Webpage .

CD141+ DC (Conventional/Classical CD141+ Dendritic Cell)

CD141 (BDCA-3)hi DCs are derived from Pre-cDCs in the bone marrow. CD141 (BDCA-3)hi DCs are equivalent to the mouse cDC1 population and are one of the key antigen presenting cells responsible for cross-presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells and priming T helper responses.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD20-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD141 (BDCA-3)hi

CD370 (CLEC9A, DNGR1)+

CD172a (SIRPα)-

CD1c (BDCA-1)-

CD11c+

HLA-DR+

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping and DC function on our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

CD1c+ DC (Conventional/Classical CD1c+ Dendritic Cell)

CD1c (BDCA-1)+ DCs are derived from Pre-cDCs during steady-state or from monocytes during inflammation in the tissue. CD1c (BDCA-1)+ DCs are equivalent to mouse cDC2s and are one of the key antigen presenting cells responsible for priming Th, Th2, and Th17 cells.


Human Markers:

Lin- (CD3-,CD20-, CD66b-, CD335-)

CD141 (BDCA-3)-

CD370 (CLEC9A, DNGR1)-

CD172a (SIRPα)+

CD1c (BDCA-1)+

CD11c+

HLA-DR+

 

Learn more about DC subtypes, essential markers for phenotyping, and DC function on our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Basophil

Basophils are a subclass of granulocytes which are differentiated in the bone marrow from GMPs. Basophils circulate in blood and control allergy responses by performing different functions including production of histamine and control of IgE levels via secretion of IL-4.


Human Markers:

SSChi

FcεRIα+

IL-5Rα+

CD203c+

Integrin Β7+

CD193 (CCR3)+

Eosinophil

Eosinophils are a subclass of granulocytes which are differentiated in the bone marrow from GMPs. Eosinophils have been shown to play an essential role in parasite infections (i.e. helminth infection) and some allergic reactions including asthma. Eosinophils are potent mediators of T helper responses by production of Th1 (i.e., IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-25) and Th2 (IL-12, IFN-γ) cytokines.


Human Markers:

SSChi

FcεRIα-

IL-5Rα+

CD203c+

Integrin Β7+

CD193 (CCR3)+

Neutrophil

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes circulating in the blood. The lifespan of neutrophils is very short and the daily replenishment of the peripheral pool of neutrophils occurs via differentiation of Neutrophils from GPs in the bone marrow. Neutrophils patrol blood vessels scavenging for pathogen-derived antigens and are one of the primary innate immune subsets to be recruited to the sites of inflammation where they produce antimicrobial peptides and proteins including α-defensins, lysozymes, and lactoferrin.


Human Markers:

SSChi

CD66b+

CD15+

IL-5Rα-

CD203c-

CD193 (CCR3)-

Integrin Β7-

FcεRIα-

LC (Langerhans Cell)

LCs are the members of dendritic cell family and serve as an antigen presenting cells in the skin. In comparison to other dendritic cell types, LCs are derived from progenitor residing in yolk sac during embryogenesis. In adulthood, the peripheral pool of LCs can be replenished by monocytes.


Human Markers:

CD45+

HLA-DR+

CD207 (Langerin)+

CD324 (E-Cadherin)+

EpCAM+

CD1a+

 

Learn more about Langerhans cells and other DC subtypes on our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Dendritic Cell Interactive Pathway.

Microglia

Microglia are specialized antigen presenting cells in brain parenchyma. Microglia cells are derived from erythromyeloid progenitors in the yolk sac during primitive hematopoiesis. During steady-state microglia cells are responsible for the removal of dead neurons and Aβ peptides, secretion of trophic factors such as BDNF, and synapse pruning. Under inflammatory signals, microglial cells become activated and differentiate into effective APCs.


Human Markers:

HLA-DR+

CD68+

Iba1+

 

Learn more about Microglia cells and other myeloid cells in the CNS on our Dendritic Cell Webpage and Microglia Webpage.

CD14+ Monocyte (Classical Monocyte or Inflammatory Monocyte)

Several precursor cells are involved in monocyte development including GMPs, GMDPs, and MDPs. CD14+ monocytes are equivalent to the mouse Ly6Chi monocyte which, upon inflammatory stimuli, migrate into inflamed tissues where they secrete proinflammatory mediators (i.e., TNF-alpha, iNOS, IL-12, and IFN type I cytokines) and give rise to inflammatory M1 macrophages and dendritic cells.


Human Markers:

SSCint

CD115+

CD14+

CD16-

CX3CR1+

CCR2hi

CD64+

HLA-DR+

 

Learn more about monocyte heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers on our Monocyte Webpage .

CD16+ Monocyte (Non-classical or Resident Monocyte)

Several precursor cells are involved in monocyte development including GMPs, GMDPs, and MDPs. CD16+ monocytes are equivalent to mouse Ly6Clo monocytes which patrol blood vessels. During inflammation, they can enter tissue and presumably develop into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages eliciting wound repair.


Human Markers:

SSCint

CD115+

CD14-

CD16+

CX3CR1hi

CCR2+

HLA-DR+

 

Learn more about monocyte heterogeneity, function, and phenotypic markers our our Monocyte Webpage .