Toll-like receptors are pattern recognition receptors that play a vital role in innate immunity pathways as they detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Many TLRs are expressed on the plasma membrane while TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are expressed within the cell on the endosome. Upon activation, TLRs dimerize and bind to TIR-containing adaptor proteins including TRIF, TIRAP, TRAM, and MyD88. Downstream signaling through IKKs and the NFκB pathway results in the production of inflammatory cytokines and interferons.
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