- Other Names
- Dickkopf-related protein 1, DKK1, Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1
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- Product Citations
DKK-1 (Dickkopf related protein 1) is a member of the Dickkopf family of proteins that include DKK-1, -2, -3,-4, and Soggy. DKK-1 was discovered by its ability to block Wnt signaling during early Xenopus embryogenesis. DKK-1 antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling by inhibiting LRP5/6 interaction with Wnt proteins. DKK-1 forms a ternary complex with LRP5/6 and the transmembane protein Kremen1/2, promoting internalization of LRP5/6 and down regulation of Wnt signaling. DKK-1 contains two conserved cysteine-rich domains separated by a linker region. The N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is unique to DKKs while the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain has a pattern of 10 cysteines similar to colipase. DKK-1 binds with LRP6 with high affinity and this interaction is enhanced by Kremens. The interactions between DKK-1 and both LRP6 and Kremens are mediated via C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. DKKs are expressed throughout development and play an important role by locally inhibiting Wnt regulated processes such as limb development, somitogenesis, antero-posterior axial patterning, and eye formation. In the adult, DKKs are implicated in bone formation and bone disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The balance between Wnt signaling and DKK-1 inhibition is important for bone homeostasis. Increased expression of DKK-1 are found in lung cancers, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and hormone-resistant breast cancers. DKK-1 expression is decreased in malignant melanoma and colorectal cancers.Product Details
- Human DKK-1, amino acid Thr32-His266 (Accession #O94907.1) was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 235 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 25.78 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 36-45 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Thr.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 EU per µg protein as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Measured by its ability to inhibit mWnt3a (Cat. No. 772301) induced TCF reporter activity in HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells. ED50 = 6 – 30 ng/mL.
- Application Notes
- BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
Placenta, prostate, colon, spleen, and platelets
- Wnt antagonist implicated in bone formation and bone disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Also promotes type 2 cell-mediated inflammation.
- LRP5/6, Kremen-1, and Kremen-2.
- Inhibits mWnt3a activity in TCF reporter assay
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Stem Cells, Cancer Biomarkers, Neuroscience, Neuroinflammation
- Antigen References
- Fedi P, et al. 1999. J Biol Chem. 274:19465-72.
- Krupnik VE, et al. 1999. Gene. 238:301-13.
- Mao B, et al. 2001. Nature. 411:321-325.
- Mukhopadhyay M, et al. 2001. Dev Cell. 1:423-434.
- Tian E, et al. 2003. New Eng J Med. 349:2483-2494.
- Niehrs C. 2006. Oncogene. 25:7469-7481.
- Diarra D, et al. 2007. Nature Med. 12:156-163.
- Fujita K and Janz S. 2007. Molecular Cancer. 6:71.
- Ahn VE, et al. 2011. Dev Cell. 21:862-873.
- Gene ID
- 22943 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about DKK-1 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.