- Other Names
- Mucosa-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC), CCK1, SCYA28, small inducible cytokine A28
- Ave. Rating
- Submit a Review
- Product Citations
Human CCL28 was identified in an EST database using a human chemokine consensus sequence. CCL28 is constitutively expressed by mucosal epithelial cells such as exocrine glands, trachea, and colon. Acinar epithelial cells in human and mouse salivary glands are strongly positive for CCL28 by immunostaining, and human saliva and milk contain high concentrations of CCL28. Furthermore, it is known that human and mouse CCL28 have antimicrobial activity attributed to the C-terminus of CCL28 against Candida albicans, Gram-negative bacteria, and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, using a CCR10 deficient mouse model, it was shown that CCR10 plays a critical role in localization and accumulation of IgA ASC in lactating mammary glands. Also, it has been described that CCL28 is upregulated in epithelial inflammation, and this upregulation allows the recruitment of Tregs expressing CCR10. In fact, a subpopulation of CCR10-expressing CD25+CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs with potent anti-inflammatory properties was isolated from a chronically inflamed human liver. Information suggests that tumor hypoxia promotes the recruitment of Tregs through induction of expression of CCL28, and this induction is mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Therefore, tumor hypoxia promotes tolerance and angiogenesis via CCL28 and Tregs.Product Details
- Human CCL28, amino acids Ile23-Tyr127 (Accession# NM_148672), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 105 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 12 kD. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 15 kD and non-reduced protein migrates at 17 kD by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Isoleucine.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- Lyophilized in sterile-filtered PBS, pH 7.2, containing 1% BSA, 0.09% sodium azide, and protease inhibitors.
- Storage & Handling
- Upon receipt, store unopened vials between 2°C and 8°C immediately and use within 12 months from date of receipt. Prior to use, reconstitute the lyophilized powder with 0.2 ml of PBS containing a carrier protein (e.g., 1% BSA, protease free), pH 7.4. Re-cap vial, vortex. Allow the reconstituted standard to sit at room temperature for 15 minutes, vortex again to mix completely. The reconstituted standard stock solution can be aliquoted into polypropylene vials and stored at -70°C for up to one month. Do not re-use diluted standards. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles.
ELISA - Quality tested
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this protein is quality control tested by ELISA assay. For use as an ELISA standard, a standard curve comprised of two-fold dilutions from 1000 pg/mL to 15.6 pg/mL is suggested. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance for each application.
- Application Notes
This CCL28 protein is useful as a standard for a human CCL28 sandwich ELISA, using unlabeled J132C3 antibody (Cat. No. 525602) for capture and biotinylated J139G11 antibody (Cat. No. 525703) for detection.
Note: For testing human CCL28 in serum, plasma or cell culture supernatant, LEGEND MAX™ Human CCL28 ELISA Kit with Pre-coated Plates (Cat. No. 441207 & 441208) are specially developed and recommended.
Mucosal epithelial cells, primary human cholangiocytes
- CCL28 chemoattracts resting CD4, CD8, and IgA antibody secreting cells. It plays a role in extravasation of IgA ASC in the small intestine, colon, lactating mammary glands, and has antimicrobial activity. CCL28 is upregulated by IL-1 or n-butirate in human colon epithelial cell lines, and IL-1 and n-butirate have a synergistic effect on CCL28 upregulation. Hypoxia induces CCL28 in tumors.
- CD4 and CD8 T cells, IgA antibody secreting cells, CCR10-expressing CD25+ CD4+ Foxp3+ Tregs
- CCR10, CCR3
- Cell Type
- B cells
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Innate Immunity
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Wang W, et al. 2000. J. Biol. Chem. 275:22313.
2. Hieshima K, et al. 2003. J. Immunol. 170:1452.
3. Hieshima K, et al. 2004. J. Immunol. 173:3668.
4. Ogawa H, et al. 2004. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 287:G1062.
5. Eksteen B, et al. 2006. J. Immunol. 177:593.
6. Morteau O, et al. 2008. J. Immunol. 181:6309.
7. Liu B and Wilson E. 2010. Eur. J. Immunol. 40:186.
8. Facciabene A, et al. 2011. Nature 475:226.
- Gene ID
- 56477 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CCL28 on UniProt.org