- SMI 21 (See other available formats)
- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Glial fibrillary acidic protein
- Mouse IgG1, κ
- Ave. Rating
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- Product Citations
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is an intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes and ependymal cells. GFAP has also been found to be expressed in glomeruli and peritubular fibroblasts, Leydig cells of the testis, keratinocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes and stellate cells of the pancreas and liver. GFAP is a type III IF protein that is closely related to its non-epithelial family members, vimentin, desmin, and peripherin, which are all involved in the structure and function of the cell’s cytoskeleton. GFAP is thought to help to maintain astrocyte mechanical strength, as well as the shape of cells.
Type III intermediate filaments are highly conserved and contain three domains, named the head, rod and tail domains. This rod domain coils around that of another filament to form a dimer, with the N-terminal and C-terminal of each filament aligned. Type III filaments such as GFAP are capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament light chain protein (NF-L). Interestingly, GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I and II intermediate filaments; in cells that express both proteins, two separate intermediate filament networks form.
To form networks, the initial GFAP dimers combine to make staggered tetramers, which are the basic subunits of an intermediate filament. The non-helical head and tail domains are necessary for filament formation. The head and tail regions have greater variability of sequence and structure. In spite of this increased variability, the head of GFAP contains two conserved arginines and an aromatic residue that are required for proper assembly.
- Human, Monkey, Canine
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- Human brain micro vessels.
- Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide.
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography.
- 0.5 mg/ml
- Storage & Handling
- The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C.
IHC-P - Quality tested
WB - Verified
ICC - Reported in the literature, not verified in house
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded immunohistochemical staining. For immunohistochemistry, a concentration range of 1.0 - 10 μg/ml is suggested. For Western blotting, the suggested use of this reagent is 1 - 10 µg per ml. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance for each application.
- Application Notes
SMI 21 has been tested for immunocytochemical localization of GFAP in astrocytes and Bergmann glia in human, monkey and dog paraffin sections. Astrocytomas from human and dog show a positive reaction with SMI 21. Rat, rabbit and mouse brain sections do not react with SMI 21. Other species have not been examined. SMI 21 shows no cross reactivity with other intermediate filaments in tissue sections or Western blot lysates derived from human or rat brain tissue.
(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
- Perng MD, et al. 2008. Mol. Biol. Cell. 19:4521. (ICC, WB) PubMed
- Chen MH, et al. 2013. ASN Neuro. 5:AN20130032. (ICC, WB) PubMed
- Chort A, et al. 2013. Brain. 136:1732. (IHC-P, WB) PubMed
- Product Citations
AB_2632644 (BioLegend Cat. No. 837204)
- GFAP is a 432 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of approximately 50 kD.
Tissue distribution: brain, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and spinal cord. GFAP is expressed by numerous cell types of the central nervous system (CNS) including astrocytes, ependymal cells, and Bergmann glia cells (protoplasmic astrocyte). GFAP is expressed in cells lacking fibronectin.
Cellular distribution: cytoskeleton and cytosol.
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Neuroscience Cell Markers
- Molecular Family
- Intermediate Filaments
- Antigen References
1. Khakh BS, Sofroniew MV. 2015. Nat. Neurosci. 18:942-52. PubMed
- Gene ID
- 2670 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about GFAP on UniProt.org
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