ErbB Family Pathway
There are four major members of the ErbB receptor family: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. These receptor tyrosine kinases help regulate cell growth, and abnormalities in these pathways can be associated with diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. Ligands for ErbB receptors include EGF, epiregulin, and transforming growth factor α (TGFα), which will induce dimerization of receptor subunits upon binding. ErbB1 activation induces recruitment of adaptor proteins SHC, SOS, and GRB2 to the cell surface, switching on signaling pathways involving Ras, Raf, and MEK1/2. This results in ERK translocation to the nucleus and regulation of gene transcription. Pathways involving PLCγ, PKC, and Map kinases are also initiated, which lead to c-Jun and c-Fos activation. Finally, ErbB3 induces PI3K signaling, which promotes cell survival and protein translation.
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