Recombinant Human TGF-β1 (carrier-free)

Pricing & Availability
Other Names
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-b2), CED, DPD1, TGFbeta, TGFB1
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Product Citations
TGF-β1 inhibits the proliferation of HT-2 cells induced by IL-4.
  • rhTGF-b1_050109
    TGF-β1 inhibits the proliferation of HT-2 cells induced by IL-4.
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Cat # Size Price Quantity Avail. Save
580702 10 µg 304€
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580704 25 µg 600€
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580706 100 µg 1.656€
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This product is scheduled for discontinuation. Cat. No. 781802 & 781804 are available as alternatives.

TGF-β1 is synthesized in cells as a 390-amino acid. Furin cleaves the protein at residue 278, yielding an N-terminal cleavage product which corresponds to the latency-associated peptide (LAP), and the 25-kD C-terminal portion of the precursor constitutes the mature TGF-β1. TGF-β activators can release TGF-β from LAP. These activators include proteases that degrade LAP, thrombospondin-1, reactive oxygen species, and integrins avb6 and avb8. Mouse TGF-β converts naïve T cells into regulatory T (Treg) cells that prevent autoimmunity. Although human TGF-β1 is widely used for inducing FOXP3+ in vitro, it might not be an essential factor for human Treg differentiation. Th17 murine can be induced from naïve CD4+ T cells by the combination of TGF-β1 and IL-6 or IL-21. Nevertheless, the regulation of human Th17 differentiation is distinct. TGF-β1 seems to have dual effects on human Th17 differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. While TGF-β1 is required for the expression of RORγt, in human naive CD4+ T cells from cord blood, TGF-β1 can inhibit the function of RORγt at high doses. By using serum-free medium, it has been clarified that the optimum conditions for human Th17 differentiation areTGF-β1, IL-1β, and IL-2 in combination with IL-6, IL-21 or IL-23.

Product Details
Technical Data Sheet (pdf)

Product Details

Human TGF-β1, amino acids Ala279-Ser390 (Accession # NM_000660) was expressed in CHO cells. Mature TGF-β1 was purified from the conditioned media.
Molecular Mass
Recombinant human TGF-β1 exists as a disulfide linked homodimer, consisting of two 112 amino acid monomers, each with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 12.8 kDa. The non-reduced protein migrates as a homodimer, at approximately 26kDa by SDS-PAGE. The DTT-reduced protein migrates as a monomer, at approximately 13kDa by SDS-PAGE.
Purity is >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 30% acetonitrile, 0.1% TFA (trifluoroacetic acid).
Endotoxin Level
Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg (<0.01 ng/µg) protein as determined by the LAL method.
10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
Storage & Handling
Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
TGF-β1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse HT-2 cells induced by IL-4. The ED50 is from 0.05 to 0.2 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.5 to 2.0 x 107 Units/mg.


Application Notes

BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at

Additional Product Notes

Get a 50% discount on this product when purchased in our Activation Bundles. Restrictions apply. Learn more…

Application References

(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
  1. Alcaide P, et al. 2012. J. Immunol. 188:1421. PubMed
  2. Sun X, et al. 2013. J. Virol. 87:10126. PubMed
Product Citations
  1. Sun X, et al. 2013. J Virol. 87:10126. PubMed
  2. Benlhabib H, et al. 2015. J Biol Chem. 290: 22409-22422. PubMed
  3. Lin C, et al. 2016. J Exp Med. 213: 251 - 271. PubMed
  4. Chen P, et al. 2016. Sci Rep. 6: 33407. PubMed
  5. de la Mare J, Jurgens T, Edkins A 2017. BMC Cancer . 10.1186/s12885-017-3190-z. PubMed
  6. Du C, et al. 2017. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.07.011. PubMed
  7. Foltz JA, et al. 2018. Cancers (Basel). 10:. PubMed
  8. Lenk L, et al. 2018. Oncoimmunology. 7:e1368603. PubMed
  9. MacFarlane EG, et al. 2019. J Clin Invest. 129:659. PubMed
  10. Tretbar S, et al. 2019. Oncotarget. 10:1507. PubMed
  11. Vicioso Y, et al. 2019. Cancer Immunol Res. 7:1106. PubMed
  12. Jokela TA, et al. 2018. Front Cell Dev Biol. 6:41. PubMed
  13. Yang YM, et al. 2019. Sci Transl Med. 11:eaat9284. PubMed
  14. Swadling L, et al. 2020. Cell Rep. 30:687. PubMed
  15. Azizov V, et al. 2020. Nat Commun. 11:1998. PubMed

Antigen Details


TGFβ1 is secreted by numerous cells.

TGFβ1 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays pivotal roles in diverse biological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and survival, cell and tissue differentiation, development, inflammation, immunity, hematopoiesis, and tissue remodeling and repair. TGF-β1 is essential for wound healing, stimulates matrix molecule deposition and angiogenesis, and is an essential mediator of the pathologic scarring in fibrotic disorders.
TGFβ1 binds to type II and type I serine/threonine kinase receptors, which initiate intracellular signals through activation of Smad proteins.
Cell Type
Embryonic Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Neural Stem Cells
Biology Area
Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Biology, Immunology, Stem Cells
Molecular Family
Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
Antigen References

1. Zou Z and Sun PD 2004. Prot Exp Purif 37:265.
2. Annes JP, et al. 2003. J Cell Sci 116:217.
3. Puthawala K, et al. 2008. Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 177:82.
4. Valcourt U, et al. 2005. Mol Biol Cell 16:1987.
5. Takatori H, et al. 2008. Mod Rheumatol DOI 10.1007/s10165-008-0099-z.
6. Manel N, et al. 2008. Nat Immunol. 9:641.

Gene ID
7040 View all products for this Gene ID
View information about TGF-beta1 on

Related FAQs

Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?

Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.

Have your recombinants been tested for stability?

Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.

How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?

We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!

What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?

The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.

Go To Top Version: 3    Revision Date: 08/19/2014

For research use only. Not for diagnostic use. Not for resale. BioLegend will not be held responsible for patent infringement or other violations that may occur with the use of our products.


*These products may be covered by one or more Limited Use Label Licenses (see the BioLegend Catalog or our website, BioLegend products may not be transferred to third parties, resold, modified for resale, or used to manufacture commercial products, reverse engineer functionally similar materials, or to provide a service to third parties without written approval of BioLegend. By use of these products you accept the terms and conditions of all applicable Limited Use Label Licenses. Unless otherwise indicated, these products are for research use only and are not intended for human or animal diagnostic, therapeutic or commercial use.


BioLegend Inc., 8999 BioLegend Way, San Diego, CA 92121
Toll-Free Phone: 1-877-Bio-Legend (246-5343) Phone: (858) 768-5800 Fax: (877) 455-9587

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