TH2 Pathway (Humoral Immune Response)
Th2 cells are a specialized subset of T helper cells that mediate the humoral response to infection. Activated T helper cells differentiate into Th2 cells in the presence of IL-4. Th2 cells produce a number of cytokines including IL-3, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 to stimulate B cell proliferation, class switching, and increase antibody production. Th2 cells also induce eosinophil, basophil, and mast cell growth and production and are associated with allergy response. Important markers of Th2 cells include GATA3, STAT6, IL-1R, CCR3, CCR4, CCR8, CRTH, and IL-33Rα.
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