Recombinant Human IL-1β (carrier-free)

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Regulatory Status
Other Names
Catabolin, interleukin-1 beta, preinterleukin 1 beta, pro-interleukin-1-beta.
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Product Citations
Recombinant human IL-1β stimulates proliferation of D10.G4.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BioLegend’s protein was compared side-by-side to a competitor’s equivalent product. The ED50 for this effect is 2.5 – 12.5 pg/mL.
  • Human_IL-1B_CF_2_042619
    Recombinant human IL-1β stimulates proliferation of D10.G4.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BioLegend’s protein was compared side-by-side to a competitor’s equivalent product. The ED50 for this effect is 2.5 – 12.5 pg/mL.
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579408 500 µg 1969€
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579402 10 µg 165€
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579404 25 µg 278€
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579406 100 µg 891€
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IL-1β in humans and mice does not encode a typical signal peptide and, as a result, newly synthesized pro-IL-1β accumulates within the cytoplasm of activated monocytes and macrophages (1). Conversion of the inactive pro-IL-1β to its mature form requires the proteolytic action of IL-1β-converting enzyme (ICE), also termed caspase-1 (2). Secretion of mature IL-1β from LPS-activated monocytes/macrophages is not a constitutive process. These cells must encounter a secondary stimulus that specifically activates the posttranslational processing events (2). Moreover, owing to its pro-inflammatory nature, IL-1β is regarded as a tumor-promoting cytokine. In fact, enhanced tumor metastasis and angiogenesis has been observed under the influence of IL-1β (3). IL-1β is able to facilitate tumor progression in murine models of lung cancer. In addition, upregulation of metastasis and tumor angiogenesis by IL-1β has been associated with increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases and expression of the pro-angiogenic molecule hepatocyte growth factor (4).

Product Details
Technical Data Sheet (pdf)

Product Details

Human IL-1β, amino acids Ala117-Ser269 (Accession # NM_000576) was expressed in E. coli.
Molecular Mass
The 153 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 17,376 Da. The DTT-reduced and the non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 18kDa by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Alanine.
Purity is > 95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 10mM NaH2PO4, 150mM NaCl, pH 7.2.
Endotoxin Level
Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg (<0.01ng/µg) protein as determined by the LAL method.
10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. To obtain lot-specific concentration and expiration, please enter the lot number in our Certificate of Analysis online tool.
Storage & Handling
Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
Human IL-1β induces the proliferation of D10.G4.1 mouse helper lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 = 2.5 - 12.5 pg/mL.

The specific activity of recombinant human IL-1β is approximately 5.63 x 104 IU/µg when compared against the 1st WHO International Standard for Human IL-1β (NIBSC code: 86/680) as determined by the dose dependent stimulation of D10.G4.1 cell proliferation.

For more information on specific activity, please visit the Recombinant Protein Unit Conversions page.


Recommended Usage

Use when high specific biological activity is required.

Application Notes

This IL-1β protein is biologically active, and can be used for in vitro assays

BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at

Product Citations
  1. Wu T, et al. 2023. Nat Methods. 20:723. PubMed
  2. Shukla S, et al. 2022. FASEB J. 36: . PubMed
  3. Marlina M, et al. 2021. Biosci Rep. 41:. PubMed
  4. Zhang H, et al. 2020. Front Cell Dev Biol. 8:205. PubMed
  5. Orzalli MH, et al. 2018. Mol Cell. 71:825. PubMed
  6. Aschenbrenner D, et al. 2018. Nat Immunol. 19:1126. PubMed
  7. Guo J, et al. 2019. Cancer Immunol Res. 1.349305556. PubMed
  8. Kusuma HSW, et al. 2020. Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 0.619444444. PubMed
  9. Niitsuma S, et al. 2020. Int Immunol. 283:32. PubMed
  10. Wu CC, et al. 2020. Regen Ther. 14:177. PubMed
  11. Wu WT, et al. 2021. J Orthop Surg Res. 16:147. PubMed
  12. Konishi S, et al. 2022. STAR Protoc. 3:101447. PubMed
  13. Stebbing J, et al. 2021. Sci Adv. 7:00. PubMed
  14. Jaeger N, et al. 2020. Cell Rep. 33:108331. PubMed
  15. Askenase MH, et al. 2021. Sci Immunol. 6:. PubMed
  16. Jokela TA, et al. 2018. Front Cell Dev Biol. 6:41. PubMed

Antigen Details

Interleukin (IL)-1β is a cytokine with a key role in the pathophysiology of local and systemic inflammation. IL-1β induces cytokine, chemokine, proinflammatory molecule secretion, and adhesion molecule expression in diverse cells.
Type I and II IL-1 receptors (IL-1RI and IL-1RII)
Cell Type
Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
Biology Area
Cell Biology, Immunology, Innate Immunity, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience, Stem Cells
Molecular Family
Antigen References

1. Stevenson FT, et al. J Cell Physiol 152:223-231 1992.
2. Shi J, et al. J. Immunol. 179:1245-1253 2007.
3. Dinarello CA Cancer Metastasis Rev 25:307-313 2006.
4. Boost KM, et al. BMC Cancer 8:265 2008.

Gene ID
3553 View all products for this Gene ID
View information about IL-1beta on

Related FAQs

Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?

     • Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
     • Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
     • 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
     • Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
     • Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
     • Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.

How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?

We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!

What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?

The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.

Have your recombinants been tested for stability?

Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.

Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?

Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.

How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?

Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10^6/ ED50 (ng/mL)

Go To Top Version: 4    Revision Date: 05/04/2020

For Research Use Only. Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use.


This product is supplied subject to the terms and conditions, including the limited license, located at ("Terms") and may be used only as provided in the Terms. Without limiting the foregoing, BioLegend products may not be used for any Commercial Purpose as defined in the Terms, resold in any form, used in manufacturing, or reverse engineered, sequenced, or otherwise studied or used to learn its design or composition without express written approval of BioLegend. Regardless of the information given in this document, user is solely responsible for determining any license requirements necessary for user’s intended use and assumes all risk and liability arising from use of the product. BioLegend is not responsible for patent infringement or any other risks or liabilities whatsoever resulting from the use of its products.


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