Neural Tube

For vertebrates, the Neural Tube is the precursor to the central nervous system in a developing embryo.

Markers:
CD15 CD288
CD49f CD349 (Human)
CD57 (Human) ABCG2 (Human)
CD81 Neuroglycan-C
CD95 (Human) Neuropilin-2
CD146 Notch-1
CD271 (Human)  

Embryonic Stem Cells

Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) are obtained from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. These pluripotent ESCs can differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm cells.

Markers:
CD9 CCR4
CD15 Frizzled-5
CD24 GCTM-2
CD29 Oct-4
CD30 Podocalyxin
CD49f SSEA-3
CD133 (Mouse) SSEA-4 (Human)
SSEA-5 (Human) CD324 (Human)
TRA-1-60 (Human) CD338 (Human)
TRA-1-81 (Human)  

Ectoderm

The ectoderm is the outermost layer of cells from the blastocyst's inner cell mass. The nervous system, sensory organs, skin, and its related structures, all arise from the ectoderm.

Markers:
NCAM (Human)  
NOTCH 1  

Outer Ectoderm (Epidermis)

The Outer Ectoderm develops into the lens, cornea, epidermis, hair, nails, tooth epithelium, mouth and olfactory epithelium.

Markers:
CD71  
p63  

Neural Crest

Neural Crest cells are multipotent and migratory, developing into several different lineages, including melanocytes, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, and the peripheral nervous system.

Markers:
CD49d  
CD57 (Human)  
CD271 (Human)  
Notch 1  

Primitive Streak

The Primitive Streak establishes bilateral symmetry in embryos. It will ultimately give rise to all three germ layers, providing all tissues of the adult organism.

Markers:
N/A  

Primitive Endoderm

The Primitive Endoderm is a precursor stage of the definitive endoderm, which will develop into organs of the viscera, like the lungs, intestines, and liver.

Markers:
CD325 (Human)  

Definitive Endoderm

The Definitive Endoderm gives rise to the epithelial lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts. It also develops into the pancreas, lungs, intestines, thyroid, liver, and thymus.

Markers:
CD184 
CD325 (N-Cadherin) 

Mesodermal Embryonic Stem Cells

Mesodermal Embryonic Stem Cells are responsible for developing into the cells of the mesoderm, which consists of connective tissue (mesenchyme), muscles, the membrane lining several body cavities, and non-epithelial blood cells.

Markers:
CD31  
CD34  
CD325 (Human)  
Sca-1  

Immature Mesoderm

Immature Mesoderm can develop into either Lateral or Paraxial Mesoderm. The former produces connective tissue, while the latter develops into myeloid and lymphoid lineages.

Markers:
N/A  

Paraxial Mesoderm

The Paraxial Mesoderm develops at the side of the neural tube. During development, this portion of mesoderm will develop into somites, or the segments of the body.

Markers:
N/A  

Lateral Mesoderm

Also known as the Lateral Plate Mesoderm, the Lateral Mesoderm forms the viscera, heart, and dermis. The Lateral Mesoderm cells also form budding limbs during embryo development.

Markers:
CD5 CD49f
CD10 (Human) CD54
CD13 (Human) CD71
CD14 CD72 (Human)
CD15 CD73
CD29 CD90
CD31 CD105
CD44 CD106
CD49d STRO-1 (Human)

Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells. They are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes.

Markers:
CD44 CD105
CD45(-) (Human) CD106
CD45(-) (Mouse) CD166 (Human)
CD45(-) (Rat) CD271 (NGFR)
CD54 (ICAM-1) CD349 (Frizzled-9)
CD73 STRO-1
CD90 TNAP

Hemangioblasts

Hemangioblasts are multipotent cells capable of developing into hematopoietic and endothelial cells.

Markers:
CD31 CD202b
CD34 CD309
CD133 (Mouse) CD324 (Human)
CD143 (Human) Eph84
CD144 Podocalyxin

Endothelial Cells

Endothelial Cells are a thin layer of cells that line the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. It serves as a physical barrier for the bloodstream and is involved with angiogenesis.

Markers:
CD31  
CD34  
CD62E (Human)  
CD105  
CD106  

Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self renewal that can give rise to all myeloid and lymphoid lineages of cells.

Markers:
CD34 CD164 (Human)
CD38(-) CD184
CD90 CD202b
CD105 CD338 (Human)
CD106 FLK-1 (Mouse)
CD117 Notch 1
CD133 (Mouse) Sca-1

Common Myeloid Progenitors

Common Monocyte Progenitors (CMPs) give rise to erythroid, megakaryocyte, and granulocyte lineages.

Markers:
CD34  
CD38  
CD45RA(-)  
CD123  

Common Lymphoid Progenitors

Common Lymphoid Progentiors (CLPs) give rise to B cells, T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells both in vitro and in vivo, but are incapable of generating myeloid cells.

Markers:
CD10 (Human)  
CD34  
CD38  

Myeloblasts

Myeloblasts are unipotent stem cells that develops into either macrophages or granulocytes.

Markers:
CD13 (Human) CD91
CD15 CD114 (Human)
CD33 CD116 (Human)

Granulocyte Monocyte Progenitors

Granulocyte Monocyte Progenitors (GMPs) give rise to basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages.

Markers:
CD34  
CD38  
CD45RA  
CD123  

Megakaryocyte Erythroid Progenitors

Derived from the Common Myeloid Progenitor, Megakaryocyte Erythroid Progenitors (MEPs) are the parent cells that give rise to megakaryocytes and erythrocytes.

Markers:
CD34  
CD38  
CD45RA(-)  
CD123(-)  

Megakaryoblasts

Megakaryoblasts are the precursors of thrombocytes, which are platelets.

Markers:
CD34  
CD36  
CD41  
CD61  

Proerythroblasts

Proerythroblasts are the earliest precursors of erythrocytes or red blood cells.

Markers:
CD71  
CD105  
Glycophorin (Human)  
PU.1