- Other Names
- Colony stimulating factor 2, CSF2, CSF-2, CSF, Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, GMCSF, CSF-alpha, Pluripoietin-alpha, Eosinophil colony stimulating factor (Eo-CSF), Burst promoting activity (BPA)
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GM-CSF plays a key role in signaling emergency hemopoiesis (predominantly myelopoiesis) in response to infection, including the production of granulocytes and macrophages in the bone marrow and their maintenance, survival, and functional activation at sites of injury or insult. GM-CSF in conjuction with IL–3 and IL-5 regulates the production and functional activation of hemopoietic cells; GM-CSF acting on monocyte/macrophages and all granulocytes. GM-CSF also controls dendritic cell and T-cell function, thus linking innate and acquired immunity. The receptor for GM-CSF is a heterodimer that comprises a major binding subunit (GMRa) and a major signaling subunit (bc) that is shared with IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. The receptor subunits are always coexpressed on the surface of leukocytes, and the bc subunit is expressed at lower levels than GMRa. Certain non-hemopoietic cell types have also been reported to express the GM-CSF receptor and to respond to GM-CSF stimulation. In the lung, GM-CSF plays a role in allergic airway disease. It is crucial for antimicrobial pulmonary host defense function and essential for surfactant homeostasis. GM-CSF has been used to protect against influenza, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and acute lung injury. In addition to the FDA approved application for GM-CSF for treating bone marrow suppression.Product Details
- Human GM-CSF (a.a. Ala18-Glu144) (Accession #NM_000758) was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 127 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 14.4 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 20 - 28 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
- > 95% by SDS-PAGE gel as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 EU per µg (0.01 ng/µg) cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Human GM-CSF induces the proliferation of TF 1 human erythroleukemic cells. The ED50 = 0.010 – 0.050 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, mast cells, alveolar endothelial cells, fibroblasts.
- Promotes proliferation, differentiation, and survival in myeloid precursors. Promotes activation of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and DCs. Stored in ECM with heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
- Granulocyte/macrophage/erythroid/megakaryocytic progenitors, myeloblasts, monoblasts, dendritic cells, T cell, endothelial cells.
- Heterodimer GM-CSFR α subunit (CDw116); β-subunit (CDw131).
- GM-CSF stimulates the TF-1 cell proliferation.
- Cell Type
- Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Kitamura T, et al. 1989. J. Cell Physiol. 140:323.
2. Walker F, Burgess AW. 1985. EMBO J. 4:933.
3. Hayashida K, et al. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:9655.
4. Hercus TR, et al. 2009. Blood 114:1289.
5. Greter M, et al. 2012. Immunity 36:1031
6. Willart MA, 2012. J. Exp. Med. 209:1505.
7. Subramaniam R, et al. 2015. PLoS One. 10:e0124593.
8. Chen GH, et al. 2016. J. Immunol. 196:1810.
9. Rösler B, Herold S. 2016. Mol. Cell Pediatr. 3:29.
- Gene ID
- 1437 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about GM-CSF on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.