- Other Names
- C-C motif chemokine 16 (CCL16), Chemokine CC-4 (HCC-4), IL-10-inducible chemokine, LCC-1, liver-expressed chemokine (LEC), Lymphocyte and monocyte chemoattractant (LMC), Monotactin-1 (MTN-1).
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CCL16 is a chemokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. The gene locus is located on q-arm of Chromosome 17 where a chemokine gene cluster is positioned. CCL16 was identified as a liver-specific chemokine and constitutively expressed in normal human liver and hepatoma cells. The previous study showed increased expression of CCL16 in HepG2 under hypoxia condition. CCL16 is also expressed in monocytes and its expression can be dramatically enhanced by LPS and IFN-γ-activated human monocytes in the presence of IL-10. The recombinant CCL16 (a.a. 24-120) is able to chemoattract THP-1 and human monocytes in a dose dependent manner. However, resting lymphocytes and neutrophils are not responsive. In addition, CCL16 causes calcium influx in THP-1 cells and the effect is desensitized by pre-treatment of CCL5, indicating CCL16 and CCL5 share the same chemokine receptor. Several evidences demonstrated that CCL16 mediates chemotaxis by binding to CCR1, CCR2, CCR5 and CCR8. Furthermore, CCL16 can chemoattract human and mouse eosinophils via histamine receptor type 4 (H4). On the top of that, CCL16 shows myelosuppressive activity. Besides, CCL16 enhances T cell cytotoxicity and modulates the activity of macrophages.Product Details
- Human CCL16, amino acid Gln24-Gln120 (Accession# NP_004581) was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 97 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 11.2 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 11.2 and 15 kD respectively by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Gln.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 4 Mm HCl.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng/µg cytokine (0.1 EU/µg) as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for one month, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 100-200 µg/mL in sterile buffer (PBS, HPBS, DPBS, and EBSS) containing carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA. After dilution, the cytokine can be stored at 4°C for one month or from -20°C to -70°C for up to three months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- The activity was measured by its property to chemoattract BaF3-hCCR1 transfectants in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 = 0.015-0.09µg/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
- CC chemokine.
Secreted, expressed in liver, spleen and thymus, dendritic cells, macrophages.
- CCL16 is a chemoattractant which recruits lymphocytes and monocytes to sites of inflammation.
- Lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils
- CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR8, HRH4
- Chemoattracts BaF3-hCCR1 transfectants.
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Innate Immunity
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Yang J.Y. et al. 2000. Cytokine 12:101.
2. Hedrick J.A. et al. 1998. Blood 91:4242.
3. Kim IS, et al. 2005. FEBS Lett. 579:6044.
4. Nureki S, et al. 2009. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 150:282.
5. Nomiyama H. et al. 2001. Int. Immunol. 13:1021.
6. Howard O.M. et al. 2000. Blood 96:840.
7. Nakayama T. et al. 2004. J. Immunol. 173:2078.
8. Youn B.S. et al. 1998. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 247:217.
9. Cappello P. et al. 2004. J. Leuko. Biol. 75:135.
- Gene ID
- 6360 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CCL16 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.