- Other Names
- Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP1δ), Macrophage inflammatory protein 5 (MIP5), Leukotactin 1 (LKN1), Hemofiltrate chemokine 2 (HCC-2), New CC chemokine 3 (NCC3)
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- Product Citations
CCL15 was discovered by analyzing the upstream region of the CCL14 gene. CCL15 is arranged in tandem with CCL14 on human chromosome 17. CCL15, CCL6, CCL9, and CCL23 have an extended N-terminal domain upstream of the first two conserved chemokine cysteines. This domain is encoded by a different exon and includes 16 to 20 residues. CCL15 (1-92) is processed by cathepsin G to produce highly active forms of CCL15 [(24-92), (27-92) and (29-92)], and elastase processes CCL15 (1-92) predominantly to CCL15 (22-92). Also, CCL15 is cleaved by MT6-MMP/MMP25 to produce CCL15 with very high activity. MMP25 is localized primarily in neutrophil gelatinase granules, and it is released by neutrophil activation and degranulation in inflammatory reactions.
High levels of CCL15 were detected in human renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis, and in vitro studies showed that CCL15 stimulates chemotaxis of osteoclast progenitors and enhances their differentiation in response to RANKL. CCL15 is abundant in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Also, it is elevated in the serum of patients with severe asthma, and it is reduced by omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE antibody that has been use in the treatment of asthma. It has been suggested that airway smooth muscle cells and basophils produce CCL15, and it might have an important role in asthma severity and persistence. In addition, high levels of CCL15 have been detected in the serum of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and human hepatic carcinoma cells express CCR1 and CCL15.
- Human CCL15, amino acids (Gln22-Ile113) (Accession# NM_032965.4) was expressed in E.coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 92 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 10 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 12 and 14 kD by SDS-PAGE respectively. The N-terminal amino acid is Gln.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for three months, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 10 µg/mL in sterile buffer (PBS, HPBS, DPBS, and EBSS) containing carrier protein such as 1% BSA or HSA. After dilution, the cytokine can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for one month or from -20°C to -70°C for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Bioactivity was measured by its property to chemoattract Baf3-hCCR1 transfectants in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 = 0.5 - 3 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
CCL15 is produced by smooth muscle cells, basophils, and hepatic carcinoma cells.
- CCL15 induces migration of monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. CCL15 is activated by cathepsin G, elastase, and MMPs. TNFα and IFNγ synergistically induce CCL15 in human airway smooth muscle cells in culture.
- Monocytes, eosinophils, airway smooth muscle cells, hepatic carcinoma cells, human osteogenic sarcoma cells, and osteoclast progenitors.
- CCR1, CCR3
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Signal Transduction
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Pardigol A, et al. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:6308.
2. Richter R, et al. 2005. J. Immunol. 175:1599.
3. Berahovich RD, et al. 2005. J. Immunol. 174:7341.
4. Shimizu Y, et al. 2011. J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents 25:177.
5. Starr AE, et al. 2012. J. Biol. Chem. 287:13382.
6. Weber KL, et al. 2012. PLoS One 7:e40799.
7. Li Y, et al. 2013. Br. J. Cancer 108:99.
- Gene ID
- 6359 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CCL15 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.