- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- VEGFA, VPF, VEGF-A, VEGF
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- Product Citations
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VEGF (known also as VEGFA) was initially identified in conditioned medium from bovine pituitary follicular cells. VEGFA belongs to the VEGF family, which has the following members: VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C (VEGF-2), VEGF-D, and PlGF (placental growth factor). In addition, viral VEGF homologs (collectively called VEGF-E) and snake venom VEGFs, such as Trimeresurus flavoviridis, and svVEGF (called VEGF-F), have been described. VEGFA is alternatively spliced to generate variants with different numbers of amino acids, such as VEGFA121, VEGFA145, VEGFA165, and VEGFA189. VEGFA165 is predominant and responsible for VEGFA biological potency.
While VEGF121 is freely diffusible and does not bind to neuropilins (NRPs) or heparan sulphate (HS), VEGF165 and VEGF189 bind to both, resulting in retention on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. NRP1 lacks a typical kinase domain and acts as a co-receptor, and in response to VEGF165, NRP1 couples with VEGF-Rs to signal in endothelial cells. In addition, it has been suggested that bone marrow cells that are recruited to Ewing’s tumors are differentiated into vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGF165 is responsible for this differentiation.
VEGFA is highly expressed in most of the solid tumors generated in breast, lung, renal, colorectal, and liver tissues. VEGFA has strong vascular permeability activity, and significantly contributes to the formation of ascites tumors. VEGFA can act as a direct proinflammatory mediator during the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and protect rheumatoid synoviocytes from apoptosis, which contributes to synovial hyperplasia. VEGFA is expressed in synovial macrophages and synovial fibroblasts in RA patients. Also, VEGFA is associated to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is due to neovascularization that originates from endothelial cells in the choroid that grow into neurosensory retina as choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
- Human VEGF-165, amino acids Ala27-Arg191 (Accession# P15692), with a C-terminal Avi-tag, was expressed in CHO cells. Human VEGF-165-Avi tag was site-specifically biotinylated by enzyme BirA.
- Molecular Mass
- The 180 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 20.97 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 20-28 kD and 35-40 kD respectively by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
- > 95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 5mM Na2HPO4, 0.15M NaCl, 5mM citric acid pH 4.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 EU per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 25 µg size is bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. To obtain lot-specific concentration and expiration, please enter the lot number in our Certificate of Analysis online tool.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Biotinylated recombinant human VEGF-165 binds to immobilized recombinant human VEGFR1 (Cat. No. 555804) at 2 ug/mL in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 1.5 – 7.5 ng/mL. HRP Avidin (Ca. No. 405103) was used to detect the binding.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Vasculogenesis, blood vessel formation from progenitor cells, angiogenesis, regulates haematopoietic stem cell survival, and induces proliferation and cell migration in endothelial cells during wound healing. Stimulates migration of monocytes and macrophages. VEGF gene expression is upregulated via hypoxia, estrogens, and NF-kB pathways.
- Embryonic, mesenchymal, neural stem cells, endothelial cells, monocytes and macrophages
- VEGFR1 (Flt-1), VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1)
- Biotinylated recombinant humanVEGF-165 binds to recombinant human VEGFR1
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Neural Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Angiogenesis, Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Synaptic Biology
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
- Conn G, et al. 1990. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 87:1323-7.
- Gerber HP, et al. 2002. Nature. 417:954-8.
- Shibuya M. 2006. J Biochem Mol Biol. 39:469-78.
- Reddy K, et al. 2008. Angiogenesis. 11:257-67.
- Shibuya M. 2008. BMB Rep. 41:278-86.
- Monaghan-Benson E, et al. 2010. Am J Pathol. 177:2091-102.
- Koch S & Claesson-Welsh L. 2012. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2:a006502.
- Gene ID
- 7422 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about VEGF-165 on UniProt.org