Pyroglutamyl Amyloid-B and Alzheimer’s Disease
BioLegend offers an extensive portfolio of reagents that focus on neuroscience targets, including amyloid--β (Aβ) peptides. Amyloid Precursor Protein is cleaved through the activity of cellular proteases to generate amyloid--β peptides. These peptides aggregate into toxic oligomers, leading to the deposition of insoluble plaques. Amyloid-β oligomers are detrimental to synaptic junctions, the contact regions between neurons, disrupting communication and inducing cell death. Recently, Jawhar et al. reviewed the increasing research interest in a prevalent modification of Aβ peptides. Termed pyroglutamyl E3 amyloid--β (AβpE3), these peptides are toxic and more aggregation-prone than other variants, and thus of considerable importance in the setting of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s Disease.
Adapted from: Jawhar, S. et al. 2011. J. Biol. Chem. 286:38825. Pubmed
A large fraction of Aβ peptide in Alzheimer’s Disease patients’  hippocampus and cortex is cleaved to remove the first two amino acids. Subsequently, glutamate at the third residue position can be modified into pyroglutamate (pE). AβpE3 tends to aggregate more easily and shows increased stability. This is due to the loss of charged residues and the formation of a lactam ring, which results in increased hydrophobicity, enhanced β-sheet formation, and resistance to peptidases. It has been postulated that AβpE3  is more toxic to neurons and astrocytes when compared to full length Aβ peptide. Like other Aβ peptides, AβpE3 can form soluble oligomers.  These oligomers slip between synapses, depressing excitatory activity and inducing synaptic failure and cell death. Oligomers can then join together to make amyloid plaques, which trigger inflammatory responses.
Amyloid Beta Related Products: Catalog Number MMS-5280 Pyroglutamyl E3 Amyloid Beta Purified Antibody Staining of pyroglutamyl E3 Amyloid Beta antibody on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human Alzheimer’s diseased brain tissue at 10 μg/ml. Western Blot showing specificity of Pyroglutamyl E3 Amyloid Beta antibody. Lane 1:Molecular weight marker, Lane 2: BSA neg control, Lane 3: ABeta1-40 peptide, Lane 4: Human Alzheimer’s disesased brain lysate (treated).
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Antibodies

Human

Specificity Clone
Amyloid-β (Aβ) NAB 228
Beta Amyloid 20.1
Beta Amyloid 1-8 2H4, 1E11
Beta Amyloid 1-16 6E10, Rabbit Poly
Low Endotoxin Beta Amyloid 1-16 6E10
Beta Amyloid 17-24 4G8
Beta Amyloid 1-38 BA1-13, 7-14-4
Beta Amyloid 1-40 11A50-B10
Beta Amyloid 40 29-6, 139-5
Beta Amyloid 1-42 BA3-9, 12F4
Beta Amyloid 42 1-11-3
Beta Amyloid 1-43 9C4

Mouse

Specificity Clone
Beta Amyloid, Rodent Specific M3.2, Rabbit Poly
Beta Amyloid 17-24 4G8
Beta Amyloid 1-40 11A50-B10
Beta Amyloid 40 29-6
Beta Amyloid 1-42 BA3-9, 12F4
Beta Amyloid 1-43 9C4

ELISAs

Recombinant Proteins

Human
Colorimetric BetaMark™ Beta-Amyloid x-40 ELISA Kit*
Colorimetric BetaMark™ Beta-Amyloid x-42 ELISA Kit*
*Also reactive to rodents.
Human
Amyloid Precursor Protein 751
Amyloid Precursor Protein 770
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