- Other Names
- Vascular permeability factor (VPF), VEGF164, VEGF-A
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- Product Citations
The VEGF family includes VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and placental growth factor (PlGF). VEGF-A is generated as multiple isoforms by alternative splicing. These isoforms are generically identified as VEGFxxx where xxx refers to the number of amino acids. Rat isoforms include VEGF-120, VEGF-164, and VEGF-188. The VEGF gene is highly conserved among human, dog, cow, mouse, rat, pig, and chicken. VEGF164 plays a critical role in new blood vessel formation in vivo. VEGF164 induces angiogenesis on different levels. It acts as mitogen especially on endothelial cells, raises the vessel permeability and dilatation by releasing NO, and has chemotactic impact on monocytes/macrophages which plays a crucial role in inducing inflammatory neovascularization. Angiogenic activities of VEGFs are mediated primarily through the two receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. VEGFR-2 signaling is enhanced by interactions with co-receptors such as heparin/heparan sulfate and Neuropilin 1. VEGF induces osteoclast migration and activation. In addition, it supports the survival of mature osteoclasts. These processes play a key role in repairing and remodeling during bone development.Product Details
- Rat VEGF-A, amino acids (Ala27-Arg190) (Accession# AY033506), was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 164 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 19.2 kD. The protein migrates approximately at 25 kD in DTT-reducing conditions and at approximately 50 kD in non-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 5 mM citric acid, 5 mM NaHPO4, 0.15 M NaCl, pH 4.0.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 0.6 - 3.6 ng/mL, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.27 - 1.67 x 106 units/mg, as determined by induction of HUVEC cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Disulphide-linked homodimer
- VEGF-164 is expressed in most tissues and is released by many cells, including endothelial cells. Although it is a diffusible protein, a significant fraction remains cell- and extracellular-matrix associated.
- VEGF-164 acts on endothelial cells, induces angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, cell growth, cell migration, and inhibits apoptosis. It increases vascular permeability. VEGF is upregulated by hypoxia, and CXCL8/IL-8 stimulates VEGF expression and VEGFR2 activation in endothelial cells.
- Endothelial cells, bone marrow-derived pericytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, monocytes, macrophages, and mesenchymal stem cells.
- VEGFR-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and VEGFR-2 (kinase domain receptor, and fetal liver kinase 1).
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Synaptic Biology, Angiogenesis, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Sulpice E, et al. 2004. Eur. J. Biochem. 271:3310.
2. Cursiefen C, et al. 2004. J. Clin. Invest 113:1040.
3. Voelkel NF, et al. 2006. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 290:L209.
4. Rennel E, et al. 2008. Br. J. of Cancer 98:1250.
5. Reddy K, et al. 2008. Angiogenesis 11:257.
6. Martin D, et al. 2008. J. Biol. Chem. 284:6038.
7. Muthusamy A, et al. 2010. BMC Biochemistry 11:43.
- Gene ID
- 83785 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about VEGF-A on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.