- Other Names
- Vascular endothelial growth factor D, c-Fos-induced growth factor, FIGF
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- Product Citations
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Vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D), also known as c-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF), is a member of the VEGF family. VEGF-D is structurally similar to VEGF-C and both are specific ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor VEGFR-3 (flt-4). They are both secreted as non-covalent homodimers. The secreted VEGF-D undergoes a complex proteolytic process enabling it to also act as a ligand for VEGFR-2 (KDR/flk-1). VEGF-D is expressed in adult lungs, heart, muscles, and small intestines. It is most abundantly expressed in the fetal lungs and skin. VEGF-D exhibits mitogenic effects on vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. VEGF-D functions in the formation of the venous and lymphatic vascular systems during embryogenesis and in the maintenance of differentiated lymphatic endothelium in adults. Both VEGF-C and VEGF-D are over-expressed in certain cancers and promote tumor lymphangiogenesis. TGF-β1 has been shown to downregulate VEGF-D expression in human lung fibroblasts.Product Details
- Human VEGF-D, amino acids (Phe89-Arg205) (Accession# O43915), was expressed in HEK293.
- Molecular Mass
- The 117 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 13.1 kD. The protein migrates at approximately 20-22 kD under non-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Phe.
- >95%, as determined by SDS-PAGE gel and HPLC analysis.
- Lyophilized from 0.2 µm filtered protein solution in 10 mM Sodium Citrate, pH 4.0.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 1.0 EU per µg protein as determined by the LAL method.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1-0.5 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer containing a carrier protein such as 0.1% BSA and store working aliquots at -20°C to -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 0.15 — 0.6 µg/mL as measured by the ability of the protein to induce proliferation of HMVEC.
- Non-covalent homodimer.
- VEGF-D is expressed in the adult lungs, heart, muscles, and small intestines; it is most abundantly expressed in the fetal heart and lungs and skin.
- VEGF-D plays a key role in lymphangiogenesis, stimulates the migration, proliferation, and the survival of human endothelial cells.
- Lymphatic endothelial cells and vascular endothelial cells.
- VEGF-R3, VEGF-R2, and Neuropilin-1.
- Measured by the ability of humanVEGF-D to induce the proliferation of HMVEC human microvascular endothelial cells.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Synaptic Biology, Angiogenesis, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Yamada Y, et al. 1997. Genomics 42:483-488.
2. Achen MG, et al. 1998. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2:548-553.
3. Stacker SA, et al. 2001. Nat. Med. 2:186-91.
4. Duff SE, et al. 2003. Br. J. Cancer 89:426-430.
5. Tammela T, et al. 2005. Cardiovasc. Res. 65:550-563.
6. Roy H, et al. 2006. FEBS Letters 580:2879-87.
7. Cui Y, et al. 2014. Mol. Med. 20:120-134.
- Gene ID
- 2277 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about VEGF-D on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.