- Other Names
- Twisted Gastrulation BMP Signaling Modulator 1, Twisted Gastrulation Protein Homolog 1, Twisted Gastrulation Homolog 1 (Drosophila), Twisted Gastrulation Homolog 1, TWSG1
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Twisted gastrulation (TSG) is a secreted glycoprotein bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist. It was initially identified in Drosophila and modulates the morphogenetic effects of the decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen. In vertebrate embryos, TSG controls the Dpp’s orthologs (BMP-2 and BMP-4). It is highly conserved, thus TSGs from different species are functionally equivalent. The activity of BMPs is controlled by the antagonists Noggin, Chordin, Chordin-like 1, Chordin-like 2, and TSG. BMP antagonists function through direct association with BMPs, inhibiting the binding of BMPs to their receptors. TSG strengthens the inhibitory complex formed by chording and BMPs. TSG also acts as a BMP agonist by promoting cleavage of chordin by tolloid-family proteinases. TSG is expressed by mouse thymocytes and upregulated during the transition from the DN to the DP and from the DP to the CD4+ or CD8+ single-positives. TSG synergizes with chordin to block the BMP-4-mediated inhibition of thymocyte proliferation and differentiation. BMP signaling and its regulation have direct effects on osteoclast differentiation and activities. TSG is a key modulator of BMP signaling, so it inhibits osteoclast differentiation. Also, TSG plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of BMP-7 on podocytes. TSG exacerbates podocyte injuries, which is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis.Product Details
- Human, amino acid Cys26-Phe223 (Accession # NP_065699) was expressed in 293E cells. The carboxyl terminus contains an 8His tag.
- Molecular Mass
- The 211 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 23.6 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 30 – 40 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Cys.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 EU per µg protein as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Recombinant human TSG inhibits the induction of alkaline phosphatase by BMP-6 at 100 ng/mL (Cat. No. 595502) in mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. The ED50 for this effect is 1 - 6 µg/mL.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
Broadly expressed in embryo. Twisted gastrulation (TSG) co-localized with BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7.
- Binds to BMPs (BMP-4, BMP-6, and BMP-7) and antagonizes their activity. Twisted gastrulation plays a key role in organ development. TSG mRNA is upregulated in T cells activated by TCR/CD3, CD28, IL-2, or PMA.
- TSG interacts with the inhibitory complex chordin-BMP and reinforces the complex.
- Binds to BMP-7 and to the C-terminal region of chordin with high affinity.
- Recombinant human TSG inhibits the induction of alkaline phosphatase by BMP-6 in mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells.
- Cell Type
- Mesenchymal cells, Osteoclasts, T cells
- Biology Area
- Cancer Biomarkers, Inhibitory Molecules
- Antigen References
- Oelgeschläger M, et al. 2000. Nature. 405:757.
- Ross JJ, et al. 2001. Nature. 410:479.
- Graf D, et al. 2002. J Exp Med. 196:163.
- Xie J and Fisher S. 2005. Development. 132:383.
- Tzachanis D, et al. 2007. Blood. 109:2944.
- Forsman CL, et al. 2013. Dev Biol. 373:95.
- Yamada S, et al. 2014. PLoS One. 9:e89135.
- Huntley R, et al. 2015. J Cell Biochem. 116:2239.
- Troilo H, et al. 2016. Matrix Biol. 55:49.
- Gene ID
- 57045 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Twisted gastrulation on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.