Recombinant Human TNF-α (carrier-free)

Pricing & Availability
Regulatory Status
Other Names
Tumor necrosis factor-α, Cachectin, Necrosin, Macrophage cytotoxic factor (MCF), Differentiation inducing factor (DIF), TNFSF2
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Product Citations
Human TNF-α cytotoxicity on L929 cells.
  • TNFa_Human_Recombinant_Protein_BA_101612
    Human TNF-α cytotoxicity on L929 cells.
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570102 10 µg £101
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570104 50 µg £161
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570106 100 µg £289
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570108 500 µg £642
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TNF-α is released from macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, T-cells (principally CD4+), NK-cells and many transformed cell lines. Soluble homotrimeric TNF-α is released from cells by proteolysis of the integral membrane precursor form of TNF-α. TNF-α binding to some TNF-α receptors induces apoptosis and depending on cell type, receptor expression, and signal transduction status can induce other responses. TNF-α is involved in the inflammatory response.

Product Details
Technical Data Sheet (pdf)

Product Details

Human TNF-α, amino acids Val77-Leu233 (Accession# NM_000594), was expressed in E. coli.
Molecular Mass
The 157 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 17,352 Da. The DTT-reduced protein and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 16kDa by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Val.
Purity is >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 10mM NaH2PO4, 150mM NaCl, pH 7.2.
Endotoxin Level
Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg (<0.01ng/µg) protein as determined by the LAL method.
10 and 50 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. To obtain lot-specific concentration and expiration, please enter the lot number in our Certificate of Analysis online tool.
Storage & Handling
Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
The ED50 = 0.01 - 0.085 ng/mL as determined by the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of L929 cells stimulated with actinomycin D.

The specific activity of recombinant human TNF-α is approximately 5.35 x 104 IU/µg when compared against the 3rd WHO International Standard for Human TNF-α (NIBSC code: 12/154).

For more information on specific activity, please visit the Recombinant Protein Unit Conversions page.


Recommended Usage

Use when high specific biological activity is required.

Application Notes

BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at

Application References

(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
  1. Chen AR, et al. 1985. J. Immunol. 135:3978.
Product Citations
  1. Mavrikaki M, et al. 2022. Nat Aging. 2:1130. PubMed
  2. Gao J, et al. 2023. Pharmaceutics. 15:. PubMed
  3. Orzalli MH, et al. 2021. Immunity. 54:1447. PubMed
  4. Zieman AG, et al. 2019. Hum Mol Genet. 28:2255. PubMed
  5. Srivastava C, et al. 2020. BMC Cancer. 20:62. PubMed
  6. Kolbrink B, et al. 2022. Biochem J. 479:259. PubMed
  7. Zhang H, et al. 2020. Front Cell Dev Biol. 8:205. PubMed
  8. Orzalli MH, et al. 2018. Mol Cell. 71:825. PubMed
  9. Fisher AL, et al. 2021. Nat Commun. 12:4026. PubMed
  10. Chang AY, et al. 2021. J Biol Chem. 297:101277. PubMed
  11. Huh JY, et al. 2020. Cell Metab. 32:1012. PubMed
  12. Hurrell BP, et al. 2019. Cell Rep. 29:4509. PubMed
  13. Zhichao Fan et al. 2019. Cell reports. 26(1):119-130 . PubMed
  14. Guo J, et al. 2019. Cancer Immunol Res. 1.349305556. PubMed
  15. Matsuda K, et al. 2021. Cell Rep Methods. 1:100122. PubMed
  16. Harth S, et al. 2019. MAbs. 11:178. PubMed
  17. de Oliveira Mann CC, et al. 2019. Cell Rep. 27:1165. PubMed
  18. Liu Z, et al. 2021. Immunity. 54(2):247-258.e7. PubMed
  19. Gopinath A, et al. 2021. NPJ Parkinsons Dis. 7:62. PubMed
  20. Molnár T, et al. 2021. FEBS J. Online ahead of prin. PubMed
  21. Akaki K, et al. 2021. Elife. 10:. PubMed
  22. Fisher AL, et al. 2021. J Biol Chem. 297:101156. PubMed
  23. Fan Z, et al. 2020. STAR Protoc. 1:100012. PubMed
  24. Mori L, et al. 2020. J Virol. . PubMed
  25. Riebeling T, et al. 2020. Cell Death Differ. . PubMed
  26. VanDussen KL, et al. 2019. Stem Cell Res. 37:101430. PubMed
  27. Jaeger N, et al. 2020. Cell Rep. 33:108331. PubMed
  28. Tonnus W, et al. 2022. Cell Death Dis. 13:236. PubMed
  29. Anderson NR, et al. 2019. Cell Adh Migr. 13:163. PubMed

Antigen Details

TNF superfamily; homotrimer
Paracrine/endocrine mediator of inflammatory and immune functions; selectively cytotoxic for transformed cells; endothelial cell alterations; chemoattractant
Cell Sources
Activated monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, LAK cells
Cell Targets
Monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoclasts, adipocytes, astroglia, microglia
TNFRSF1A (TNF-R1, CD120a, TNFR-p60 Type β, p55); TNFRSF1B (TNF-R2, CD120b, TNFR-p80 Type A, p75)
Biology Area
Cell Biology, Immunology, Innate Immunity, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience
Molecular Family
Antigen References

1. Fitzgerald K, et al. Eds. 2001. The Cytokine FactsBook. Academic Press San Diego.
2. Beutler B, et al. 1988. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57:505.
3. Beutler B, et al. 1989. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 7:625.
4. Tracey K, et al. 1993. Crit. Care Med. 21:S415.

Type II integral membrane protein processed by TACE for secretion; upregulated by interferons, IL-2, GM-CSF, substance P, bradykinin, PAF, immune complexes, cyclooxygenase; downregulated by IL-6, TGF-β, vitamin D3, prostaglandin E2, PAF antagonists
Gene ID
7124 View all products for this Gene ID
View information about TNF-alpha on

Related FAQs

Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?

     • Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
     • Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
     • 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
     • Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
     • Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
     • Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.

How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?

We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!

What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?

The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.

Have your recombinants been tested for stability?

Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.

Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?

Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.

How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?

Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10^6/ ED50 (ng/mL)

Go To Top Version: 6    Revision Date: 09/30/2020

For Research Use Only. Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use.


This product is supplied subject to the terms and conditions, including the limited license, located at ("Terms") and may be used only as provided in the Terms. Without limiting the foregoing, BioLegend products may not be used for any Commercial Purpose as defined in the Terms, resold in any form, used in manufacturing, or reverse engineered, sequenced, or otherwise studied or used to learn its design or composition without express written approval of BioLegend. Regardless of the information given in this document, user is solely responsible for determining any license requirements necessary for user’s intended use and assumes all risk and liability arising from use of the product. BioLegend is not responsible for patent infringement or any other risks or liabilities whatsoever resulting from the use of its products.


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