- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Placental growth factor 1 (PGF1)
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- Product Citations
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Placenta growth factor (PLGF) was initially cloned form a term placenta cDNA library. PLGF is a dimeric glycoprotein with 53% homology to VEGF. As a result of alternative splicing, four isoforms for PLGF has been described, PLGF-1, PLGF-2, PLGF-3, and PLGF-4. PLGF-2 binds to heparin with high affinity, whereas neither PLGF-1, PLGF-3, nor PLGF-4 bind heparin. PLGF-2 is the only isoform in mouse. PLGF binds to VEGFRI but not to VEGFRII; also PLGF binds to sVEGF1. PLGF plays a key role in the maternal vascular function during pregnancy. Low levels of PLGF have been associated with patients experiencing preeclampsia and delivering small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates. High expression of PLGF has been associated to colorectal cancer (CRC), and its expression in CRC tissues correlates with high levels of MMP-9 and VEGF1. PLGF has been shown to increase tumor cell migration in lung cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells. In colorectal cancer, PLGF induces tumor cell migration and invasion through upregulation of MMP9. PLGF is expressed in the majority of medulloblastomas, and high expression of PLGF receptor neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) correlates with poor survival in patients. In a mouse model, PLGF/Nrp1 blockade provided direct antitumor effects in vivo, medulloblastoma regression, decreased metastasis, and increased survival.Product Details
- Human PLGF, amino acids (Ala21-Arg149) (Accession# NM_001207012) was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 129 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 14.5 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 20-25 kD and 45-50 kD by SDS-PAGE respectively. The N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 5 mM citric acid, 0.15 M NaCl, 5 mM NaHPO4, pH 4.0.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 1.0 EU/µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 100 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. To obtain lot-specific concentration, please enter the lot number in our Concentration and Expiration Lookup or Certificate of Analysis online tools.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 2- 12 ng/ml as determined by the dose dependent binding to VEGFR1-Fc chimera using a functional ELISA.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, keratinocytes, hematopoitic cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, tumor cells, and cerebellar stroma cells.
- PLGF is an angiogenic factor and induces proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. It stimulates endothelial cells and synergistically amplifies the action of VEGF. Soluble VEGFR1 (sFLT1) can regulate the accessibility of PLGF.
- Endothelial cells, Macrophages, and trophoblats.
- VEGFR1 (FLT-1), and neuropilin 1 (Nrp1).
- Cell Type
- Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Signal Transduction, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Maglione D, et al. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:9267.
2. Carmeliet P, et al. 2001. Nat. Med. 7:575.
3. Casalou C, et al. 2007. Leukemia 21:1590.
4. Marcellini M, et al. 2006. Am. J. Pathol. 169:643.
5. Yao J, et al. 2011. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:11590.
6. Cai J, et al. 2011. PLoS One 6:e18076.
7. Sibiude J, et al. 2012. PLoS One 7:e50208.
8. Snuderl M, et al. 2013 Cell 152:1065.
- Gene ID
- 5228 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about PlGF on UniProt.org
Related Pages & Pathways
- Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?
• Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
• Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
• 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
• Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
• Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
• Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)