- Other Names
- Programmed Cell Death Protein 1, PD1, PDCD1, CD279
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- Product Citations
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a type I transmembrane protein initially isolated from apoptosis-induced cells by subtractive hybridization. The amino acid sequence of mouse PD-1 shares 59.4% identity to the human counterpart, and a putative tyrosine kinase-association motif is well conserved. Its extracellular region consists of a single Ig-like variable (IgV) domain. PD-1 is an inhibitory molecule expressed by activated B and T cells and has been implicated in immune tolerance. PD-L1 and PD-L2 are the ligands for PD-1 and their binding leads to the inhibition of T cell receptor-mediated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. PD-1/PD-L1 interaction suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors, and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 promote tolerance by blocking TCR-mediated signaling. PD-L1 expression by tumor cells allow tumor progression by suppressing antitumor T-cell responses. Antibodies against PD-1 or PD-L1 lead to increased antitumor immunity.Product Details
- Human PD-1, amino acid Leu25-Gln167 (Accession # Q8IX89), with a C-terminal hIgG1 Fc tag, was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 382 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 42.8 kD. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 60 - 70 kD and and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 100 - 120 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Leu.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for one month, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 50-100 µg/mL in sterile buffer (PBS, HPBS, DPBS, and EBSS) containing carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA and stored in working aliquots at -20°C to -70°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- When human PD-1-Fc Chimera is coated at 1 µg/mL (100 µL/well), biotinylated human B7-H1/PD-L1 binds with an EC50 of 40 – 160 ng/mL. HRP Avidin (Cat. No. 405103) was used to detect the binding.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
Antigen-stimulated T and B cells, regulatory T cells, follicular T and B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes
- Inhibitory receptor on antigen activated T-cells that plays a critical role in induction and maintenance of immune tolerance to self
- APC, monocytes, dendritic cells, stromal cell, cancer cells
- B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) and B7-DC (PD-L2, CD273)
- Measured by its ability to bind biotinylated human B7-H1 (PD-L1)
- Cell Type
- Antigen-presenting cells, B cells, Dendritic cells, Monocytes, T cells
- Biology Area
- Adaptive Immunity, Immuno-Oncology, Immunology
- Molecular Family
- Immune Checkpoint Receptors, Soluble Receptors
- Antigen References
- Ishida Y, et al. 1992. EMBO J. 11:3887.
- Fife BT, et al. 2009. Nature Immunol. 10(11):1185-92.
- Freeman GJ, et al. 2000. J Exp Med. 192:1027.
- Latchman Y, et al. 2001. Nat Immunol. 2001 2:261.
- Iwai Y, et al. 2002. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99(19):12293-7.
- Dai S, et al. 2014. Cell Immunol. 290:72.
- Tan S, et al. 2017. Nature Commun. 8:14369.
- Gene ID
- 5133 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about PD-1 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.