Recombinant Human GDF-15 (carrier-free)

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Recombinant Human GDF-15 binds to immobilized human GFRAL in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06 – 0.3 ng/mL.
  • Human_GDF-15_CF_1_031023
    Recombinant Human GDF-15 binds to immobilized human GFRAL in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06 – 0.3 ng/mL.
  • Human_GDF-15_CF_2_031023
    Testing for Recombinant Human GDF-15. Recombinant Human GDF-15 was aliquoted in 4 mM HCl at 0.2 mg/mL and one aliquot was kept at 4°C (Control), and another was frozen and thawed four times (4x Freeze/Thaw). The samples were tested by their ability to bind to immobilized human GFRAL in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06 – 0.3 ng/mL.
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799204 25 µg £137
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799206 100 µg £517
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GDF-15 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. GDF-15 is expressed as a 308 amino acids precursor that includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, and a 112 residue mature protein. The secreted pro-domain binds to the extracellular matrix, where it can be activated by multiple enzymes such as furin (PCSK3), PCSK5, PCSK6, MMP-26, and MT1-MMP. GDF-15 is mainly expressed in placenta and prostate. Its expression is low in other tissues such as kidney, bladder, stomach, pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. GDF-15 is highly expressed in cancer cells with high levels detected in serum of cancer patients. GDF-15 has an important role in metabolic syndrome. GDF-15 transgenic mice present a lean phenotype. Furthermore, GDF-15 affects the macrophages in adipose tissue.  Lean adipose tissue is characterized by the presence of anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages. In obese individuals, adipose tissue show presence of CD8 effector cells and recruitment of inflammatory M1 macrophages. The increase of M1 macrophages over M2 results in metabolic changes, increase of TNFα, induction of glucose intolerance, and insulin insensitivity. GDF-15 binds to the GDNF receptor family member alpha like (GFRAL) which interacts with the co-receptor RET. 

Product Details
Technical Data Sheet (pdf)

Product Details

Human GDF-15, amino acids (Ala197-Ile308) (Accession# Q99988) was expressed in E.coli.
Molecular Mass
The 112 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 12.4 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 12 kD and 25 kD by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
> 95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 4mM HCl.
Endotoxin Level
Less than 0.1 EU per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
25 µg size is bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial. To obtain lot-specific concentration and expiration, please enter the lot number in our Certificate of Analysis online tool.
Storage & Handling
Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
Human GDF-15 binds to immobilized GDNF receptor-alpha-like (GFRAL) in a dose dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 0.06 – 0.3 ng/mL.


Application Notes

BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at

Antigen Details


Macrophages, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Expressed mainly in placenta and prostate. 

Regulates metabolism, appetite, cell survival, and immune tolerance. Regulated by androgens and calcitriol in prostate. Induced by inflammatory cytokines: IL-1b, TNFa, IL-2, and G-CSF.
Neurons, gastric cancer cells, normal gastric mucosal cells, adipose tissue
Measured by its ability to bind to GFRAL
Cell Type
Epithelial cells, Macrophages, Neurons
Biology Area
Cancer Biomarkers, Immuno-Oncology
Molecular Family
Growth Factors
Antigen References
  1. Bootcov MR, et al. 1997. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 94:11514-9.
  2. Emmerson PJ, et al. 2017. Nat Med. 23:1215-1219.
  3. Li J, et al. 2018. Mol Cell Biol. 38:e00099-18.
  4. Li S, et al. 2014. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 99:E2277-87.
  5. Nishimura S, et al. 2009. Nat Med. 15:914-20.
  6. Lackey DE, et al. 2016. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 12:15-28.
  7. Buchholz K, et al. 2021. J Cancer. 12:4698-4709.
Gene ID
9518 View all products for this Gene ID
View information about GDF-15 on

Related FAQs

Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?

     • Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
     • Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
     • 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
     • Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
     • Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
     • Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.

How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?

We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!

What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?

The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.

Have your recombinants been tested for stability?

Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.

Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?

Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.

How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?

Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10^6/ ED50 (ng/mL)

Go To Top Version: 1    Revision Date: 03/10/2023

For research use only. Not for diagnostic use. Not for resale. BioLegend will not be held responsible for patent infringement or other violations that may occur with the use of our products.


*These products may be covered by one or more Limited Use Label Licenses (see the BioLegend Catalog or our website, BioLegend products may not be transferred to third parties, resold, modified for resale, or used to manufacture commercial products, reverse engineer functionally similar materials, or to provide a service to third parties without written approval of BioLegend. By use of these products you accept the terms and conditions of all applicable Limited Use Label Licenses. Unless otherwise indicated, these products are for research use only and are not intended for human or animal diagnostic, therapeutic or commercial use.


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