- Other Names
- Bone morphogenetic protein 14 (BMP14), cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 (CDMP1), BDA1C, Lipopolysaccharide associated protein 4 (LAP4), LPS associated protein 4, OS5, SYM1B, SYNS2, GDF5
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Growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) was initially identified in partially purified extracts from newborn calf articular cartilage. It is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of proteins, which are members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays a key role in skeletal development, bone formation, and stem cell differentiation. Human GDF-5 is highly homologous to its murine equivalent and the mature proteins differ only by one amino acid. GDF-5 belongs together with GDF-6 and GDF-7 to a subfamily of the BMPs. BMPs signal through heterotetrameric complex receptors, which include four type I receptors (ALK1, ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6) and three type II receptors (BMPRII, ActRIIA, and ActRIIB). GDF-5 binds specifically to BMPR1b, BMPRII, and ACTRIIA receptors forming a heterodimeric complex thus inducing the phosphorylation of smad1, 5, 8 and the translocation to the nucleus. GDF-5 enhances endochondral bone growth, development of limb skeletons and joints, and odontogenesis. GDF-5 stimulates osteogenic differentiation and increases VEGF levels in fat-derived stromal cells in vitro. Also, GDF-5 stimulates the proteoglycans and type II collagen production in intervertebral disc cells, and enhances cell proliferation and matrix synthesis in annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells, which inhibits degenerative disc disease. GDF-5 could be suitable for gene therapy for lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Mutations in the human GDF-5 gene result in a broad spectrum skeletal disorders. GDF-5 is a potent neurotrophic factor in vitro and in vivo for rat dopaminergic midbrain neurons, specifically the ones that degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Exogenous GDF-5 is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, it is a key regulator of the growth and elaboration of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus.Product Details
- Human GDF-5, amino acids Met-(Ala376 - Arg495) (Accession# NM_000557), was expressed in E.coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 121 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 13.7 kD. The protein migrates at approximately 14 kD and 28 kD in DTT-reducing conditions and non-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 4mM HCL.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 0.2 - 1.2 µg/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.83 - 5 x 103 units/mg, as determined by the induction of Alkaline phosphatase in mouse chondrogenic ATDC-5 cells.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
Predominantly expressed in cartilaginous tissues, precartilaginous mesenchymal condensation, and throughout the cartilaginous cores of the developing long bones.
- Skeletal development during embryogenesis, joint formation, tendon repair, and odontogenesis. MicroRNA-21 suppresses the expression of GDF-5 by inducing GDF-5 mRNA decay in chondrocytes. Noggin inhibits GDF-5.
- Chondrocytes, osteoblast, periosteum cells, fibroblasts, hippocampal pyramidal cells, and dopaminergic midbrain neurons.
- BMPR1b, BMPRII, and ACTRIIA.
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Neural Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Synaptic Biology
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Chang SC, et al. 1994. J. Biol. Chem. 269:28227.
2. Hotten G, et al. 1994. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204:646.
3. Nishitoh H, et al. 1996. J. Biol. Chem. 35:21345.
4. Groppe J, et al. 2002. Nature 420:636.
5. Chen X, et al. 2006. J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 41:26.
6. Kleinschmidt K, et al. 2013. Biomaterials 34:5926.
7. Osorio C, et al. 2013. Development 140:4751.
8. Zhang Y, et al. 2014. Exp. Mol. Med. 46:e79.
9. Li YF, et al. 2015. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 8:719.
- Gene ID
- 8200 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about BMP-14 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.