- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Inhibin BA (INHBA), Inhibin B-1, Follicule stimulating hormone-releasing protein (FRP), FSH releasing protein, FSH releasing factor, Erythroid differentiation factor (EDF)
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- Product Citations
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Activin A was initially identified in ovarian fluid as a stimulator of FSH secretion from anterior pituitary cells. Activin A is a member of the TGFb1 family which includes TGFs, activins, Nodal, growth and differentiation factors (GDF), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Activin A is a dimer of the beta A subunits of human inhibin; the beta A subunit binds the beta B subunit of inhibin to form Activin AB. The beta B subunit also exists as a heterodimer to form Activin B. Activin A binds two type I and two type II serine/threonine kinase receptors at the same time. The type II receptor kinase is constitutively active and phosphorylates the type I receptor after the formation of the ligand-receptor complex. Five type II receptors have been identified: ActRIIA, ActRIIB, BMPRII, TGFβRII, and MISRII. ActRIIB binds to Activin A, BMP-2, BMP-7, GDF-8, and GDF-11. The type I receptors are named activin receptor-like kinases 1 to 7 (ALK1~7), and Activins bind to ALK4 and ALK7. Follistatin (FS) is a natural Activin A antagonist; FS neutralizes its biologic activities by preventing Activin A interaction with its receptors. Activin A has pleiotropic functions. It is a morphogen during embryonal development, regulating chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC). Activin A has been associated with neuroprotection, apoptosis, and fibrosis. Also, high levels of Activin A have been found in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and gout. In addition, it has been speculated that Activin A, in collaboration with TGFb1 and IL-25, promotes TH9 generation and the development of allergic pathology.Product Details
- Human Activin A, amino acids Met-(Gly311-Ser426) (Accession # P08476 ) was expressed in (E. coli).
- Molecular Mass
- The 117 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 13.1 KD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced glycosylated protein migrate at approximately 12 kD and 24 kD respectively by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- > 95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is 10 mM Citric Acid pH 3.0
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 EU per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method
- 25 µg size is bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.)
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Human Activin A induces cytotoxic effect on MPC-11 mouse plasmacytoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 1– 6 ng/mL.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Activin A is expressed by a wide range of cells such as BM-derived stromal fibroblasts, aortic smooth muscle cells, pulmonary epithelium, CD4 T cells.
- Activin A plays a key role in embryogenesis, neointimal formation after arterial injury, early stages of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and hemopoiesis. Activin A drives TH9 differentiation in vitro. It is induced by Angiotensin II and α-Thrombin and regulated by Follistatin. Activin A is induced by inflammatory cytokines and inhibited by glucocorticoids.
- The receptors for Activin A are expressed by many stromal cells, among them fibroblasts, hepatocytes, myometral cells, vascular endothelial cells, and neuronal progenitor cells.
- Type I receptors ALK4 and ALK7, Type II receptors ActRIIA and ActRIIB.
- Human Activin A induces cytotoxic effect on MPC-11 mouse plasmacytoma cells in a dose-dependent manner.
- Antigen References
- Schawall RH, et al. 1988. Mol Endocrinol. 2:1237.
- Hashimotto M, et al. 1992. J Biol Chem. 267:4999.
- Shav-Tal Y and Zipori D. 2002. Stem Cells. 20:493.
- Dojhi T et al. 2005. Gastroenterology. 128:411.
- Tsuchidak K, et al. 2008. Endocr J. 55:11.
- Djouad F, et al. 2010. Steam Cell Research. 1:11.
- Sako D, et al. 2010. J Biol Chem. 285:21037.
- Jones CP, et al. 2012. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 129:1000.
- Gene ID
- 3624 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Activin A on UniProt.org
- Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?
• Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
• Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
• 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
• Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
• Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
• Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)