Non-stem cell transplant cell-based immunotherapy involves isolation of immune cells, in vitro expansion/manipulation to augment anti-tumor immune responses, and transfusion back into the patient (see diagram below). Depending on the context, these cells can either come from the original patient in the case of an autologous transplant, or from a different donor in the case of an allogeneic donor with a matched HLA-type to minimize chances of graft-versus-host disease development in the recipient.

Cell-Based Therapy Scheme

Cell-Based Therapy Scheme

Current clinical use and cell-based immunotherapy research is focused around several immune cell types. This includes the transplantation of anti-tumor T Cells, such as Chimeric Antigen Receptor-carrying T Cells (CAR-T Cells), and cancer antigen-primed antigen presenting cells (APC vaccines). We will discuss these different types of cell-based cancer immunotherapies in the corresponding sections, and future avenues for improving their therapeutic benefit.

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