- Other Names
- Tumor necrosis factor-α, Cachectin, Necrosin, Macrophage cytotoxic factor (MCF), Differentiation inducing factor (DIF), TNF superfamily, member 2, (TNFSF2),
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TNF-α was originally described as an endotoxin-induced, macrophage-derived factor that promotes hemorrhagic necrosis of solid tumors and the cachexia of chronic infections. TNF-α has also been implicated in a range of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant disorders. At the cellular level, TNF-α modulates a broad spectrum of responses including inflammation, immunoregulation, proliferation, apoptosis, and antiviral activity. In bone, the cytokine inhibits extracellular matrix deposition, stimulates matrix metalloprotease synthesis, and enhances production of osteoclastogenic cytokines such as M-CSF and RANKL. Chronic exposure to TNF-α in vivo increases osteoclastogenesis through two distinct mechanisms. TNF-α first affects osteoclastogenesis at the osteoclast precursor stage in the bone marrow by priming these cells to differentiate into cFms+/CD11b+/RANK+/- osteoclast progenitors via a RANKL/RANK independent mechanism. These osteoclast precursors then enter the blood and peripheral tissues where they differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of RANKL, and this process is accelerated by TNF-α. The role of TNF-α at this later stage of osteoclast differentiation is RANKL/RANK dependent. Importantly, TNF-α promotes bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo by enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors.Product Details
- Rat TNF-α, (amino acids Leu80-Leu235, Accession # NM_012675) was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 157 amino acid N-terminal methionylated recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 17,361 Da. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 17kDa and the non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 16kDa by SDS-PAGE.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE
- Lyophilized in sterile-filtered PBS, pH 7.2, containing 1% BSA, 0.09% sodium azide, and protease inhibitors.
- ELISA Standard 4-Pack contains four vials of recombinant rat TNF-α at >5 ng per vial. Recommended for ELISA application only. Standards are calibrated against a BioLegend Master Calibrator.
- ≥ 5ng/vial
- Storage & Handling
- Upon receipt, immediately store unopened vials between 2°C and 8°C and use within 12 months from date of receipt. Prior to use, reconstitute the lyophilized powder with 0.2 ml of PBS containing a carrier protein (e.g., 1% BSA, protease free), pH 7.4. Re-cap vial, vortex. Allow the reconstituted standard to sit at room temperature for 15 minutes, vortex again to mix completely. The reconstituted standard stock solution can be aliquoted into polypropylene vials and stored at -70°C for up to one month. Do not re-use diluted standards. Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles.
ELISA - Quality tested
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this protein is quality control tested by ELISA. For use as an ELISA standard, a standard curve comprised of doubling dilutions from 1000 pg/mL to 15.6 pg/mL is suggested. It is recommended that the reagent be titrated for optimal performance.
- Application Notes
This TNF-α protein is useful as a standard for a rat TNF-α sandwich ELISA, using unlabeled TN3-19.12 antibody as capture and biotinylated Poly5160 antibody as detection.
- TNF superfamily, dimer/timer
It is produced primarily by macrophages, and can also be expressed by activated T cells, B cells, NK cells, and neutrophils.
- Type II integral membrane protein processed by TACE for secretion; upregulated by interferons, IL-2, GM-CSF, substance P, bradykinin, PAF, immune complexes, cyclooxygenase; downregulated by IL-6, TGF-β, vitamin D3, prostaglandin E2, PAF antagonists.
- Monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoclasts, adipocytes, astroglia, microglia
- TNFRSF1A (TNF-R1, CD120a, TNFR-p60 Type β, p55); TNFRSF1B (TNF-R2, CD120b, TNFR-p80 Type A, p75)
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Innate Immunity
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Boyce BF, et al. 2005. J. Med. 54:127-131.
2. Lam J, et al. 2000. J. Clin. Invest. 106:1481-1488.
3. Udagawa N, et al. 2002. Arthritis Res. 4:281-289.
4. Kwon J, et al. 1993. Gene. 132:227-236.
- Gene ID
- 24835 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about TNF-alpha on UniProt.org