- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), CD357, AITR
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- Product Citations
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NFRSF18 is a type I transmembrane protein that was initially identified from dexamethasone-treated murine T cell hybridoma cells, and was designated GITR (for glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene). The human TNFRSF18 has 56% amino acid sequence identity to the mouse receptor. The human and mouse receptors contain three cysteine rich domains (CRD) in their extracellular region. TNFRSF18 expression is up-regulated in human peripheral mononuclear cells after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies. TNFRSF18 interacts with TRAF1 (TNF receptor-associated factor 1), TRAF2, and TRAF3, and induces nuclear factor NFkB activation via TRAF2. TNFRSF18 is a key player in the differentiation of thymic Tregs (tTregs), and expansion of both tTregs and peripheral Tregs (pTregs). Human regulatory T cells (Tregs) constitutively expresses TNFRSF18. TNFRSF18 and its ligand are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Soluble forms for TNFRSF18 and TNFSF18 were detected in the serum of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, and those levels correlated with disease severity. Other autoimmune and allergic diseases have been associated to TNFRSF18 /TNFSF18 interaction as demonstrated in disease models of gastritis, thyroiditis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and allergic airway inflammation.Product Details
- Human TNFRSF18, (amino acids Gln26-Glu161, Accession # NP_004186) was expressed in 293E cells. The carboxy terminus contains SRIEGRMD-hIgGFc tag.
- Molecular Mass
- The 375 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 41.2 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 50 kD and 80 kD respectively by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Gln.
- > 95% by SDS-PAGE gel as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 EU per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Measured by functional ELISA. Immobilized recombinant TNFRSF18 at 2 ug/ml binds human TNFSF18 (BL cat.# 559202) with an ED50 = 5-20 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Low expression on resting T cells, B cells, and macrophages; high expression on CD25<sup>+</sup> CD4<sup>+</sup> Tregs and CD25<sup>+</sup> CD4<sup>+</sup> CD8<sup>-</sup> thymocytes.
- Differentiation of thymic Tregs (tTregs), and expansion of both tTregs and peripheral Tregs (pTregs). TNFRSF18 is stimulated in anti CD3/ CD28 activated T cells.
- Macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and endothelial cells.
- TNFSF18 (AITRL, GITRL, TL6)
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Costimulatory Molecules
- Molecular Family
- CD Molecules, Soluble Receptors
- Antigen References
1. Nocentini G, et al. 1997, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94:6216.
2. Gurney AL, et al. 1999, Curr. Biol. 9:215.
3. Shimizu J, et al. 2002, Nat. Immunol. 3:135.
4. Tone M, et al. 2003, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100:15059.
5. Gan X, et al. 2013, Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2013:340751.
6. Nocentini G, et al. 2012, Br. J. Pharmacol. 165:2089.
7. Ronchetti S, et al. 2015, J. Immunol. Res. 2015:171520.
- Gene ID
- 8784 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about GITR on UniProt.org
- Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?
• Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
• Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
• 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
• Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
• Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
• Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10^6/ ED50 (ng/mL)