The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors consisting of three subtypes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. Agonists that stimulate PPARs are lipid-derived molecules that regulate energy metabolism. PPAR activity can also be regulated by interactions with kinases or factors involved in other signaling pathways, including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, and PKA. PPAR activation has been associated with anti-inflammatory signaling through the inhibition of NF-κB.
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