- Other Names
- Leukemia inhibitory factor, HILDA (human interleukin in DA cells), MLPLI (melanoma-derived LPL inhibitor), DIA (differentiation-inducing factor), MCP1
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- Product Citations
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CCL2, also known as MCP-1, is a member of the CC β chemokine family. It is widely expressed in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and monocytes in response to several atherogenic stimulants such as CD40 ligand, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidized low density lipoprotein. Several recent in vivo studies have disclosed critical roles of MCP-1 in atherosclerosis. In addition, MCP-1 has been implicated in monocytic infiltration of tissues during several inflammatory diseases and has been implicated in macrophage-mediated tumor growth suppression in mice. CCL2 has been shown to have direct effects on tumor cells in an autocrine and paracrine fashion in multiple cancer types, including breast, lung, cervix, ovary, sarcoma, and prostate. In addition, MCP-1 plays a key role in the regulation of MMPs during transmigration. MCP-1 has been described as a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for progressive renal injury in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney epithelial cells, including glomerular podocytes and tubular cells make MCP-1 in response to high glucose and advanced glycation end products. MCP-1 promotes inflammation and progressive injury in diabetic kidneys. The importance of MCP-1 in the early development of diabetic nephropathy has been determined in animal models incorporating genetically deficient mice or therapeutic blockade of MCP-1 receptor (CCR2).Product Details
- Human CCL2, amino acids Gln24-Thr99 (NM_002982), was expressed in E.coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 76 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 8.7 kD. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Gln.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis.
- Lyophilized, carrier-free.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg of protein.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer, such as 5% Trehalose, and store working aliquots at -20°C to -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Determined by its ability to chemoattract human monocytes using a concentration range of 10 - 100 ng/ml.
- Application Notes
This product is reactive with human, bacteria, chicken, monkey, mouse, and rat.
- CCL2 (MCP-1) is secreted by fibroblast, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, tumor cells, phytohemaglutinin stimulated mononuclear cells.
- Monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF), monocyte secretory protein JE, small inducible cytokine A2 (SCYA2).
- Ligand Receptor
- CCL2 mediates its cellular effects primarily through CCR2 receptor.
- Cell Type
- Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Antigen References
1. Loberg RD, et al. 2007. Cancer Research. 67:9417.
2. Gregory JL, et al. 2006. J. Immunol. 177:8072.
3. Qui Z, et al. 2009. Immunology. 214:835.
4. Reichel CA, et al. 2009. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. ATVBAHA.109.193268v1
5. McQuibban GA, et al. 2002. Blood 100:1160.
5. Tesh GH, et al. 2008. Amm. J. Physiol. Renal. Physiol. 294:F697-F701.
- Gene ID
- 6347 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CCL2 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.