M-CSF was first characterized as a glycoprotein that induces monocyte and macrophage colony formation from precursors in murine bone marrow cultures. M-CSF is constitutively present at biologically active concentrations in human serum, and binds CD14+ monocytes, and promotes the survival and proliferation of peripheral blood monocytes. In addition, M-CSF enhances monocyte functions such asphagocytic activity, microbial killing, and tumor cell cytotoxicity. It also induces the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1-β, TNF-α, and INF-γ in monocytes. M-CSF induces RANKL in mature osteoclasts, and is consequently a potent stimulator of mature osteoclast resorbing activity. Also, M-CSF induces VEGF in monocytes in human tumors. High levels of M-CSF, mononuclear phagocytes, and VEGF are associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. High levels of M-CSF have also been correlated to other pathologies such as pulmonary fibrosis and atherosclerosis. M-CSF binds to its receptor M-CSFR, and this receptor is shared with another ligand, IL-34. Human M-CSF and IL-34 exhibit cross-species specificity by both binding to the human and mouse M-CSF receptors. Respectively, rat M-CSF has 80% and 77% identity with mouse and human M-CSF.Product Details
- Rat M-CSF, amino acids (Glu33-Pro186) (Accession# NM_023981), was expressed in 293E cells.
- Molecular Mass
- The 154 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 20.1 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 25 - 35 kD and 55 - 70 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Glu.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 2.5 - 12.5 ng/mL, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.8 - 4.0 x 105 units/mg, as determined by induction of N-MSF-60 mouse myelogenous leukemia lymphoblast cell proliferation.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
- Disulfide-linked glycosilated homodimer
M-CSF is broadly expressed. It is released by fibroblasts, breast cancer cell lines, alveolar macrophages, stromal bone marrow cells, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal cells.
- M-CSF is the key regulator of the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes and also plays a central role in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. M-CSF also regulates the development of Paneth cells, Langerhans cells, lamina propria dendritic cells, and microglia.
- Monocytes, macrophages, mononuclear phagocyte precursors, microglia, proliferating smooth muscle cells, umbilical vein endothelial cells, and breast cancer cell lines.
- M-CSFR or CSF1R (CD115).
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Cell Proliferation and Viability, Immunology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Kawasaki ES, et al. 1985. Science 230:291.
2. Wei S, et al. 2010. J. Leuko. Biol. 88:495.
3. Hodge JM, et al. 2011. PLos One 6:e21462.
4. Morandi A, et al. 2011. PLos One 6:e27450.
5. Erblich B, et al. 2011. PLos One 6:e26317.
6. MacDonald KP, et al. 2010. Blood 116:3955.
7. Nakanishi A, et al. 2013. Int. J. Mol. Med. 31:874.
- Gene ID
- 78965 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about M-CSF on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.