- Other Names
- HUAT, Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 9 (LGALS9), LGALS9A
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Galectins constitute a family of conserved animal lectins, which are characterized by their affinity for poly-N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates and sequence similarities in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In vertebrates, the Galectin family comprises 15 members. Galectins have been classified into three types: a) Prototype monomeric Galectins with a single polypeptide chain that dimerize (Galectin-1, -2, -5, -7, -10, -11, -13 -14, and -15); b) Tandem repeat galectins composed of a single polypeptide chain with two CRDs, joined by a linker peptide (Galectin-4, -6, -8, -9, and -12); and c) Chimeric galectin, thus far containing only Galectin-3, which consists of one C-terminal CRD linked to an N-terminal domain. Galectin-9 may be retained intracellularly or transported to the cell surface where it can be cleaved to generate a soluble form. Galectin-9 functions in effector and regulatory phases of the immune response. During inflammation, the production of Galectin-9 in vivo generates a microenvironment that limits effector T cell responses. Galectin-9 can negatively regulate the Th1 immune response by engaging TIM-3 on T cells, which leads to induction of intracellular Ca2+ influx and activation of apoptosis pathways. In addition, Galectin-9 has been shown to function as a urate transporter in the kidney. Galectin-9 has been identified as a possible prognostic marker in breast cancer, melanoma, and oral squamous cell carcinomas.Product Details
- Human Galectin-9, amino acids Met-(Ala2-Thr323) (Accession# NP_002299) was expressed in E.coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 355 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 35.5 kD. The protein migrates at approximately 40 kD in both DTT-reducing and non-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in pH 7.4, 20 mM MOPS, 0.5M NaCl, 7.5% sucrose, 10 mM 2-ME, and 1 mM EDTA.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 1 EU per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Galectin-9 induces agglutination of human red blood cells at a minimum effective concentration of 1.6 µg/ml.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are validated in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at email@example.com.
Galectin-9 is expressed by lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, astrocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, thymus stromal cells, and epithelial cells.
- Cell aggregation, adhesion, chemotaxis, apoptosis, suppression of Th1 and Th17 responses, and induction of regulatory T cells. IFN-γ induces galectin-9 expression in fibroblasts, endothelial, and Kupffer cells. IL-1β and IL-5 induces it in astrocytes and eosinophils, respectively.
- Extracellular matrix.
- Galectin-9 binds to glycans featuring galactose and its derivatives: CD44 and TIM-3.
- Biology Area
- Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Adhesion, Cell Biology, Cell Motility/Cytoskeleton/Structure, Immunology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Adhesion Molecules, Immune Checkpoint Receptors
- Antigen References
1. Toscano MA, et al. 2009. Nat. Immunol. Rev. 9:338.
2. Hadari YR, et al. 2000. J. Cell Sci. 113:2385.
3. Tsuboi Y, et al. 2007. Clin. Immunol. 124:221.
4. Zhu C, et al. 2005. Nat. Immunol. 6:1245.
5. Wu C, et al. 2014. Immunity 41:270.
6. Graessler J, et al. 2000. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 486:179.
7. Bacigalupo ML, et al. 2013. World J. Gastroenterol. 47:8831.
- Gene ID
- 3965 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Galectin-9 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.