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The mouse IL-34 (Accession# NM_001135100.1: Met1- Pro235 with a C-terminal 8His tag) was expressed CHO cells.
The 215 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 26 kD. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 39 kD and the non-reduced protein with slightly greater mobility by SDS-PAGE.
>98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 10 mM NaH2PO4, 0.5 M NaCl, pH 7.4
Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
10-100 µg sizes are bottled at 100 µg/mL. 500 µg and larger sizes are bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial.
Storage & Handling:
Unopened vial can be stored at 4°C for three months, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 10 µg/mL in buffer containing carrier protein such as 1% BSA or HSA or 10% FBS. After dilution, the cytokine can be stored at 4°C for one month or from from -20°C to -70°C for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
ED50 =20 - 30 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 3.3 - 5 x 104 units/mg, as determined by M-NFS-60 cell proliferation induction in a dose dependent manner.
M-NSF-60 cell proliferation induced by mouse IL-34.
Mouse IL-34 shares a sequence identity of 71% with human IL-34 on the amino acid level, and the IL-34 gene is syntenic in the human, chimpanzee, rat, and mouse genomes. IL-34 has no apparent consensus structural domain or motif and does not share sequence homology with M-CSF; nevertheless, it binds to the CSFR. These two cytokines are not identical in biological activity and signal activation. IL-34 and CSF show an equivalent ability to support cell growth or survival. However, these cytokines have different ability to induce the production of chemokines (MCP-1 and eotaxin-2) in primary macrophages, the morphological change in TF-1-fms cells, and the migration of J774A.1 cells. The use of monoclonal antibodies against the CSFR suggests a differential domain binding in the receptor to IL-34 and CSF. As a result, different bioactivities and signal activation kinetics/strength are produced for these cytokines.
IL-34 mRNA is expressed in different tissues, including spleen, heart, brain, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, testes, ovary, small intestine, prostate, and colon.
IL-34 increases monocytes viability, induces macrophage proliferation, and synergized with other cytokines to generate macrophages and osteoclasts from cultured progenitors. IL-34 promotes the formation of the colony-forming unit-macrophage (CFU-M) in human bone marrow culture. IL-34 supports RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by promoting the adhesion and proliferation of osteoclast progenitors. IL-1β and TNF-α induce the expression of interleukin-34 mRNA in osteoblasts. IL-34 is induced in macrophages infected with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV).
Macrophages, monocytes, and myeloid cells
1. Lin H, et al. 2008. Sciences 320:807. 2. Chihara T, et al. 2010. Cell Death Differ. 17:1917. 3. Wei S, et al. 2010. J. Leukoc. Biol. 88:495. 4. Eda H, et al. 2010. Reumathology PMID:21181166. 5. Covaleda L, et al. 2010. Virology 397:217.
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