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Human IL-15, amino acids Asn49-Ser162 (Accession# NM_000585) was expressed in E. coli.
The 114 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 12,773 Da. The DTT-reduced protein migrates at approximately 9kDa and the non-reduced protein migrates at approximately 7kDa by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Asn.
Purity is >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 10mM NaH2PO4, 150mM NaCl, pH 7.2.
Endotoxin level is <0.1 EU/µg (<0.01ng/µg) protein as determined by the LAL method.
10-100µg sizes are bottled at 200µg/mL. 500µg sizes and larger are bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial.
Storage & Handling:
Unopened vial can be stored at 4°C for three months, at -20°C for six months, or at -70°C for one year. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Stock solutions should be prepared at no less than 10µg/mL in buffer containing carrier protein such as 1% BSA or HSA or 10% FBS. For long term storage, aliquot into polypropylene vials and store in a manual defrost freezer. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
ED50 is 0.10-0.50 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 2-10 x 106 units/mg, as determined by the dose dependent stimulation of CTLL-2 cells proliferation.
IL-15 was discovered in the supernatant from a simian kidney epithelial cell line CV-1/EBNA, as a soluble factor capable of supporting proliferation of the IL-2-dependent cell line, CTLL-2 (1). Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a regulatory cytokine, and it is produced by dendritic cells, epithelial cells, human stromal cell line (IMTLH), fibroblasts, and monocytes (2). IL-15 plays an important role in immune response and shares many functions with IL-2, for example, stimulating the proliferation of activated T cells (1, 2), NK cells (3) and B cells, and inducing immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells stimulated by anti-IgM or CD40 ligand (4). In addition, IL-15 promotes the development of dendritic cells (5), activates human neutrophils (6, 7) and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages (8). IL-15 acts as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity because of its diverse roles in the immune system. IL-15 binds to heterotrimeric receptors composed of IL-15Rα, IL-15Rβ, and IL-15Rγc. IL-15 shares with IL-2 the receptor chains β and γc. IL-15 is normally not secreted in soluble form but is held on the cell surface bound to a unique receptor, IL-15Rα, especially on dendritic cells. Cell-bound IL-15 then is presented in trans to T cells and NK cells and is recognized by the γc receptor on these cells; such recognition maintains cell survival and intermittent proliferation (9).
13 kD single non-glycosylated polypeptide
IL-15 is expressed by DC, epithelial cells, human stromal cell line (IMTLH), fibroblasts, and monocytes.
IL-15 stimulates the proliferation of activated T cells (1, 2), NK cells (3) and B cells, and inducing immunoglobulin synthesis by B cells stimulated by anti-IgM or CD40 ligand (4). In addition, IL-15 promotes the development of dendritic cells (5), activates human neutrophils (6, 7) and induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines from macrophages (8).
adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells, fibroblasts and epithelial cells
T lymphocytes, NK cells
IL-15Rα, IL-15Rβ and IL-15γc
stimulatory activities on the proliferation, survival and activation of T lymphocytes and NK cells, and the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis via activating T cells and induces IL-17 production
1. Grabstein K, et al. Science 264:965-968 1994. 2. Ma A, et al. Annu Rev Immunol 24:657-679 2006. 3. Meresse B, et al. Immunity 21:357-366 2004. 4. Armitage RJ et al, J Immunol 154:483-490 1995. 5. Pulendran B, et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 34:66-73 2004. 6. Bouchard A, et al. J. Leukoc. Biol. 76:162-168 2004. 7. Ratthe C, et al. 2004. J. Leukoc. Biol. 75:893. 8.Feng T, et al. 2008. Cell Immunol 5:189. 9. Rubinstein MP et al, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:9166-9171 2006.
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